Mar 05, 2018
Osteoporosis - is a disorder of the bone system, in which the bones become brittle and break easily due to an imbalance between the formation of bone mass and bone resorption. Affected bones become porous, brittle and susceptible to fractures. Wrist, hip and spinal vertebrae are the most common fracture sites. This disease is common among people aged 70 years;it is observed in women four times more often than men, due to the hormonal changes that occur during menopause. In the absence of prevention and treatment, osteoporosis progresses asymptomatically and leads to fractures of the bones. How to use folk remedies for this disease look here.
Osteoporosis can develop in any person. But the most vulnerable to him are women after menopause, tk. During this period, the production of estrogen decreases, which leads to a significant loss of bone mass. However, men suffer from osteoporosis. The development of osteoporosis is promoted by a hereditary predisposition - the presence of relatives suffering from osteoporosis or having too brittle bones.
• Usually there are no symptoms.
• Lower back pain is often the result of a fracture of the spine.
• Gradual reduction in growth and hunches.
• Fractures of the wrist, hip, or spine.
• Some bone loss is a normal consequence of aging
Many factors accelerate osteoporosis: decrease in estrogen levels after menopause;calcium deficiency in food;physical inactivity;smoking;excessive use of alcohol;insufficient weight.
Diet. The lack of a vitamin B diet and the minerals needed by the body, such as calcium and magnesium, increases the risk of osteoporosis. Excessive intake of protein and salt also contributes to osteoporosis,increases the loss of calcium in the urine. Nevertheless, protein is necessary for bones. In general, you should adhere to a balanced diet.
Abuse of diets. Excessive craze for diets leads to a decrease in estrogen levels and a deficiency of important nutrients,.necessary for the buildup of bone mass. Osteoporosis is a common complication of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia. Surgery on the stomach also increases the risk of osteoporosis.
Lack of exercise. An inactive lifestyle or prolonged bed rest reduces bone density. The most effective way to maintain the strength of bones is to regularly perform exercises with weights and endurance. The largest bone mass, as a rule, is found in active children. More exercises are discussed.
Smoking. Nicotine and cadmium contained in cigarettes have a direct toxic effect on bone cells. In addition, smoking reduces the level of estrogen and disrupts the absorption of calcium in the intestine. Smoking leads to early menopause and increases the risk of bone fractures.
Abuse of alcohol. Alcohol is toxic to osteoblasts, cells that synthesize bone mass. In addition, it damages the liver and pancreas, disrupting the ability of the body to absorb calcium and synthesize vitamin E. Chronic drunkenness is accompanied by a decrease in the level of estrogens and testosterone, as well as an increase in the probability of fractures of bones.
• Hereditary factors can play a role. For example, in white women, osteoporosis is more common.
• Osteoporosis can develop as a consequence of a major illness, for example, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, premature menopause( before the age of 45), testosterone deficiency in men, chronic lung diseases and Cushing's disease( excessive production of adrenal corticosteroids).
The following are diseases and groups of diseases that lead to the development of osteoporosis by reducing the digestibility of important nutrients or by affecting cells that build or destroy bone.
Diseases of the digestive system: inflammatory bowel diseases, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, malabsorption syndrome. Surgical removal of the stomach or part of it also increases the risk of osteoporosis.
Chronic kidney disease.
Chronic liver disease.
Chronic lung diseases.
Endometriosis. Triad athletes. This is a combination of three interrelated disorders caused by intense exercise - eating disorders, osteoporosis and amenorrhea( irregular menstruation).Physical exercises increase the consumption of calories, so the more you do, the more you need to eat to maintain a normal body weight.
• There are drugs that increase the likelihood of osteoporosis. If you take any of this, talk to your doctor, maybe you should check the bone density.
Corticosteroids( also called glucose corticoids or steroids), eg cortisone, prednisone, dexamethasone. These drugs are prescribed for diseases such as arthritis, asthma, lupus and chronic lung diseases. Steroids reduce the level of estrogens and testosterone in the blood, and also slow the formation of bones.
Excessive amounts of drugs based on thyroid hormones( levotroids, synthids).
Anticonvulsants. Long-term use of these drugs leads to a violation of calcium absorption and the production of vitamin D. Diuretics. In addition to preventing edema by stimulating the excretion of water and sodium by the kidneys, these drugs also raise calcium excretion by the kidneys.
Chemotherapy. Some drugs reduce the production of estrogen, it depends on the drugs used and your age. Radiation therapy also reduces bone density.
Disabling the endocrine function( used to lower the level of male and female sex hormones in the blood, for which the gonadotropin releasing hormone is administered).These drugs are used to treat endometriosis and malignant neoplasms of the prostate.
Prolonged use of heparin( a preparation for the dilution of blood).Prolonged use of contraceptive drug depot.
The use of antacids containing aluminum. Aluminum disrupts the absorption of calcium, if taken too much.
• Case history and physical examination.
• Study of bone density.
It is advisable for women to establish a baseline bone density at the age of about 50 years or during the menopause - which will come sooner. It is necessary to obtain a detailed written description of the results. Even if the result is normal, you can use this information to develop a suitable exercise program to prevent osteoporosis. Knowing the baseline values will help determine the rate of bone loss in the future. Regardless of the diagnosis, the study of the results will improve your understanding of the problem of osteoporosis and will lead to the adoption of preventive measures.
Men should be tested at the age of 70 years. For people of both sexes, bone density analysis is indicated in the following cases: if your bones are easily broken;if you have chronic diseases that contribute to loss of bone mass;if you take anticonvulsant or asteroid drugs such as prednisone and cortisone if you take high doses of thyroid hormone medications if you have dramatically decreased the level of sex hormones at any age.
What are the best bone density tests?
DERA( two energy X-ray absorptiometry) of the spine and femur.
The dose of irradiation in the course of DYRA is slightly from what you get with the chest x-ray and 1/500 of what you get with CT scan. The dose of irradiation with DEPA does not exceed that obtained during intercontinental flight. One of the great advantages of DERA is that it allows you to get a skeleton image at very low radiation doses. If a problem is detected, a conventional X-ray is prescribed, which gives a more accurate image.
• Blood and urine tests, and sometimes bone biopsy, to detect or rule out other causes of bone loss.
• X-ray or other imaging techniques, such as computed tomography. Conventional X-rays, however, do not detect osteoporosis until 25 percent( or more) of bone mass are lost.
Osteoporosis can develop in anyone: someone who does not eat properly and does not receive sufficient physical exertion, as well as those who take medications that help reduce bone mass. However, the worst possible risk is for thin women to post menopause, especially if there is osteoporosis in the family history. In the next two sections, we will discuss these and other risk factors.
1. The older the person - regardless of sex - the higher the probability of osteoporosis. Usually, the bone mass reaches a peak at the age of 25 to 40 years. Then the bone density gradually decreases.
In women, the age-related decrease in bone mass occurs in two stages. The first rapid phase begins in menopause and lasts 4-10 years, after which it is replaced by a second, slow phase, which lasts a lifetime.
Osteoporosis can also develop in children and young people, but in such cases, the causes are usually malnutrition, taking certain medications of the disease, rather than age.
2. Women suffer from osteoporosis more often than men. This is due to the fact that in the middle of life they have a sharp drop in the level of estrogen. In addition, in women, the bone is usually thinner. However, men can also develop osteoporosis.
As orthopedist Leon Ruth writes: "Every eighth man during his life develops osteoporosis. After seventy years, the risk of developing this "quiet killer" is the same for men and women. "Loss of bone mass can be caused by a decrease in testosterone levels, which may partly be due to excessive alcohol consumption or treatment of malignant neoplasms of the prostate. With age, testosterone levels are gradually decreasing. His level can be checked with a simple blood test.
3. Residents of Europe and Asia are more likely to suffer from osteoporosis than those from South America and Africa. But osteoporosis can develop in a person of any race and nationality.
4. The presence of osteoporosis and bone fractures in a family history increases the risk of osteoporosis. Dr. Sidney Lou Bannik writes that medical studies of identical twins and daughters of women suffering from osteoporosis show that the peak amount of bone mass is largely determined genetically.
5. If you have thin bones, small weight, small or too large growth, then you have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures, but compared with those who weigh more and who have thicker bones.
6. The risk of osteoporosis is elevated in women who have menstruation after 16 years, and who have had menopause before the age of 45( anyway, naturally or as a result of surgery).The less estrogen produced during your life, the higher the risk of osteoporosis.
7. If you have had bone fractures as a result of minor injuries, you have an increased risk of osteoporosis and other fractures, compared to those who have never broken bones.
• Replacement hormone therapy may slow the development of osteoporosis in women after passing through menopause.(Women without a uterus can take estrogen without a progestational component.)
• However, bone density begins to decrease once hormone replacement therapy
is discontinued. Therefore, the risk and benefit of substitution therapy should be discussed with your doctor.
• Bisphosphonate therapy( using drugs like alendronate and risedronate) slows the resorption of bones and promotes the formation of bone mass. Additives with calcium can also be used.
• A high dose of calcitonin( a hormone that regulates the use of calcium by the body) can slow the loss of bone material and possibly increase bone mass.
• The drug raloxifene( "Evista") can be a good choice for women who should not use hormone replacement therapy.
• Parathyroid hormone, which can be injected intravenously, is a promising tool that allows you to replenish bone mass.
• Exercises and physiotherapy can support the functioning of the body.
• Consider scanning for osteoporosis if your family has osteoporosis, if you are a woman and you are 65 years old, if you have a question about hormone replacement therapy or if you have a fracture that is not associated with trauma.
• Estrogen replacement therapy is very effective in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Estrogen should be started soon after menopause, as the loss of bone mass at this time is greatly accelerated.
• Food rich in calcium and vitamin D protects against osteoporosis. Elderly people and women after the passage of menopause should receive 1500 milligrams of calcium and 600 to 800 IU of vitamin D daily with food and food supplements. Adhere to a balanced diet, consume enough calcium, vitamin B and magnesium. Ideal is a diet low in saturated fats and trans fats and rich in vegetables and fruits. Reducing the caloric content of the food will help to consume more products that strengthen the bones without gaining weight, especially if you are doing aerobic exercise. Perhaps it makes sense to add to the diet products from soy. Soya contains vegetable estrogens, which help slow the decline in bone density.
• It is important to exercise regularly to maintain a normal weight. Be engaged in physical culture, pay special attention to exercises on the upper part of the thigh, spine and wrists - these three areas are particularly prone to fractures.
If necessary, take food supplements with minerals and vitamins.will help to determine whether you consume these important nutrients enough.
Do not smoke or abuse alcohol. Smoking and alcohol disrupt the absorption of kalymya and suppress the growth of cells that synthesize bone mass.
Do everything necessary to maintain general health. The condition of the bones depends on the general state of health. In addition, drugs used to treat certain diseases, called bone loss.
If you have low bone density, find out if therapy is available anywhere near the vibrating platform. You get up on the platform, which hardly vibrates, which stimulates the growth of bones. The procedures are carried out for 10-20 minutes a day.
Before you pass the bone density tests, learn about these tests in more detail Then you can use the results more fully. They not only show if you have osteoporosis. They also help develop an exercise program to strengthen areas with the lowest bone density, and to identify various medical problems.
If possible, choose a medical center that provides patients with a maximum of information and allows for more detailed examination of the bones of the hips and spine. In addition to diagnosis, the results of such tests help to develop an individual exercise program.
• Consult a doctor for any sign of osteoporosis.
• If you have osteoporosis and after any strain or damage, pain occurs, consult a doctor immediately.