Mar 05, 2018
Epilepsy is a mental illness with paroxysmal disorders, progressive progress, increasing personality changes. At the heart of epilepsy are organic changes in the brain. The clinical picture is characterized by convulsive and non-convulsive paroxysms, personality changes by epileptic type, and by acute or chronic psychoses. What folk remedies to use with this disease look here.
Among the convulsive paroxysms are large and small convulsive seizures.
Epileptic seizures of are changes in the functioning of nerves that result from abnormal electrical activity of the brain. With the normal functioning of the brain, electrical discharges are transferred from one neuron to another along paths that form certain patterns of thought and behavior.
Seizures begin as a result of sudden repetitive, synchronized emissions from many neurons, which can result in a sharp change in consciousness, perception and control of muscles. Various types of seizures can be combined into two large groups: large epileptic seizures and local( focal) epileptic seizures. In large epileptic seizures, abnormal electrical activity can occur anywhere in the brain, while in local seizures, abnormal activity is limited to one area of the brain.
Perhaps the most common type of epileptic seizures is a large epileptic fit: sudden loss of consciousness, accompanied by strong convulsions of the entire body for several minutes. The patient completely does not remember what happened and after that usually is confused and remains in a sleepy state for some time.
A large seizure begins with a lightning loss of consciousness, tonic muscle spasms and a fall in the body. Breath stops. There comes a sharp cyanosis. The tonic phase lasts a few seconds. Then come the clonic convulsions with the rhythmic twitching of the whole body. During the clonic phase, urine and feces are secreted involuntarily, the secretion of the salivary glands increases, the foam is lost in the mouth. After 1-2 minutes, clonic convulsions stop. Breathing is gradually restored. The patient remains in a coma with complete areflexia, pupils do not react to light( unlike a hysterical fit).Gradually, the coma becomes stunned, the reflexes are restored, and a dream lasts for several hours. After a fit and sleep, the patient feels broken, asthenic disorders. Often the development of a large seizure is preceded by aura-obscuration of consciousness, accompanied by vegetative, less frequent motor disorders, massive shestopathies, visual hallucinations.
A small epileptic seizure is another example of seizures and is characterized by an unconscious look, stopped eyes and loss of understanding of reality, but not by muscle convulsions. Like the first case, patients usually do not remember what happened. In the absence of treatment, a person can experience hundreds of small epileptic seizures every day, each of which lasts a few seconds.
Small convulsive seizure is characterized by sudden loss of consciousness, the presence of rudimentary( or tonic, or clonic) seizures and is accompanied in some cases by a fall.
Local( or focal) seizures can cause certain limited movements, for example, chewing, lip licking or swallowing, or just strange feelings, such as a brief tingling or numbness. Diseases that cause recurrent seizures are known as epilepsy;seizures can also occur as a one-time phenomenon, for example, at a high temperature in children. Epilepsy occurs in about 1-2 percent of the population. Usually seizures last from a few seconds to several minutes. Very long, large epileptic seizures or often recurring seizures require urgent treatment.
Non-convulsive paroxysms( equivalents) proceed with confusion of consciousness, with detachment of the patient from the surrounding, with the presence of bright visual hallucinations, delusions, affect of fear, but with the preservation of automated actions or sharp psychomotor agitation, dangerous sometimes for others. The confusion of consciousness ends suddenly, often with a critical dream.
Bessodorozhnye paroxysms without confusion of consciousness are most often manifested by dysphoria: in patients suddenly develops an angry mood with aggressive tendencies, in some cases with suspicion, sometimes with an inclination to alcohol, to arsons. Ends up suddenly. Non-convulsive paroxysms include transiently occurring aphasia, narcolepsy( sudden insuperable drowsiness), catheplexia;the latter arises in connection with affective experiences - in patients the muscle tone suddenly decreases, and the patients fall. Muscle tone is also restored suddenly in a few moments. Paroxysms may occur at different frequencies and at different time intervals.
Epileptic changes in the psyche are characterized by stiffness, viscosity, sluggishness of mental processes. Thinking in patients is detailed, stiff( patients can not separate the main from secondary, with difficulty switch from one topic to another).
Their movements are slow, heavy. With early epilepsy, along with the described phenomena, there are features of infantilism( childishness).
Epilepsy course: the disease begins in childhood or at a young age, but cases of so-called late epilepsy are also known. In some cases, epilepsy occurs almost without paroxysmal disorders( one or two seizures throughout the disease) and is expressed in progressive changes in the psyche of the epileptic type, in the growth of epileptic dementia( this form is called mental epilepsy).
The basis of therapy is the use of anticonvulsants taking into account the nature and frequency of paroxysms. At large convulsive fits, a mixture of Sereisky or papillofer is indicated. In some cases, appoint phenobarbital 0,05-0,1 g 1-3 times a day or benzonal 0.1 g( 0.2 g) 3 times a day( less toxic than phenobarbital), as well as chloracon 0, 25 g( 0.5 g) 3-4 times a day.
Long-term and systematic use of anticonvulsants is necessary. Sudden abolition of drugs can cause a sharp increase in seizures and epileptic status - frequent convulsive seizures, in the intervals between which the patient is in a twilight or coma. This status can last from a few hours to several days;represents a threat to the life of the patient due to a violation of breathing and circulation. The patient needs individual medical supervision, since the exit from the status is often accompanied by a twilight state of consciousness during which the patient can commit dangerous actions.
In addition to anticonvulsant therapy, patients with epilepsy need diet therapy;recommended milk and vegetable food, limiting the amount of liquid, table salt. Patients should refrain from drinking alcohol. It is forbidden to work on transport, in moving machinery, in hot shops, near stoves, at a height.
• Do not attempt to hold a person when a fit occurs. If a person falls, try to hold him, so that he does not fall sharply. Move objects away to prevent accidental injury, and then step aside. Do not try to insert your fingers into the person's mouth during a fit;contrary to popular belief, a person does not swallow a tongue during a fit, and trying to keep a patient's mouth open can harm him or you. After the muscle spasms have stopped, turn the person on his side so that he does not get choked with liquid or vomiting. When a person regains consciousness, calm him down. A person should sleep for a while after a seizure. Treatment is necessary in case of seizures caused by high fever in children.
• An anticonvulsant may be prescribed, for example, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, valproate, gabapentin, tiagabine, topiramate, lamotrigine, ethosuximide, clonazepam and primidone.
• Brain surgery can be performed in serious cases to remove tumors, scar tissue or abnormal vessels, and also to interrupt the pathways of abnormal electrical activity.
Although complete recovery is not possible, epilepsy can usually be controlled with various anticonvulsants. Children with minor epileptic seizures often recover with age, in late adolescence or in young adulthood. In other types of seizures, the use of anticonvulsants may be discontinued after the patient has lived without seizures from two to five years. The operation on the brain is an alternative in case the seizures are severe or do not respond to treatment. After surgery, seizures can go completely or almost completely, and mental activity often improves.
With hereditary predisposition, children should be supervised by a neurologist. They carry out special studies and make out honey.withdrawal from some vaccinations. It is also necessary to properly manage childbirth and prevent birth injuries.
Not so long ago, at the beginning of the 20th century, people believed in the supernatural origin of epilepsy. This disease was called "falling down" and was associated with the introduction of spirits in man, capable of helping and harming, predicting the future and discovering the secrets of the past. ..
Of course, the modern medical view of epilepsy is very different from what was dominant 100 years ago. But even now there are a lot of riddles with epilepsy.
The brain work is extremely complicated. Despite the fact that scientists have been studying the human brain for years, much remains unknown, including the exact causes of epilepsy.
Brain cells send electrical signals to each other, controlling motor, sensory and mental functions. In some people, this process can suddenly be disturbed, accompanied by seizures( paroxysms), which can be characterized by convulsions, hallucinations, loss of consciousness, breathing disorders, automatic actions. The attack is not accompanied by pain.
Scientists associate epilepsy with injuries or brain diseases: head injury, meningitis or encephalitis. Possible and congenital anomaly of the brain. Often, the cause of the disease and can not be established accurately.
Prevention of attacks, significantly reducing their frequency, is a diet with a low content of salt and liquids and complete refusal to drink alcoholic beverages. In addition, to reduce the number of attacks helps to limit the time spent in the sun( in no case can not be overheated), avoiding places with too much sound impact and too rapid change of visual impressions, as happens in a disco, where a loud sound is accompanied by flashes of light. Epileptics do not want to look out of the window in a train or bus, because too fast changing of visible objects over-wears the eyes and brain, irritates the nervous system and can cause seizures of epilepsy.
With adequate and timely treatment, the prognosis of epilepsy is favorable. The exception is the early age of epilepsy's debut and its malignant course.