Disturbance of cerebral circulation symptoms
Mar 05, 2018
The cerebral circulation of is the circulation in the system of the vessels of the brain and spinal cord.
The process that causes cerebral circulation disorders can affect the main and cerebral arteries( aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, general, internal and external carotid, subclavian, vertebral, basilar, spinal, radicular arteries and their branches), cerebral veins and venous sinuses, jugular veins. The nature of the pathology of cerebral vessels is different: thrombosis, embolism, narrowing of the lumen, kinks and looping, aneurysms of the vessels of the brain and spinal cord.
The severity and localization of morphological changes in brain tissue in patients with impaired cerebral circulation are determined by the underlying disease, the blood supply reservoir of the affected vessel, the mechanisms of development of this circulatory disorder, the age and individual characteristics of the patient.
Morphological signs of cerebral circulation disorders can be focal and diffuse. To focal ones include hemorrhagic stroke, hemorrhagic hemorrhage, cerebral infarction;to diffuse - a variety of different temperaments and different prescriptions small-focal changes in the brain substance, small hemorrhages, small fresh and organized foci of necrosis of brain tissue, gliomesodermal scars and small cysts.
Clinically, in cases of cerebral circulation disorders, there may be subjective sensations( headache, dizziness, paresthesia, etc.) without objective neurologic symptoms;organic microsymptomatics without clear symptoms of prolapsed central nervous system function;focal symptoms: motor disorders - paresis or paralysis, extrapyramidal disorders, hyperkinesia, coordination disorders, sensitivity disorders, pain;disturbances in the functions of the sensory organs, focal disturbances of the higher functions of the cerebral cortex - aphasia, agraphia, alexia, etc.; changes in intellect, memory, emotional-volitional sphere;epileptic seizures;psychopathological symptoms.
The initial manifestations of cerebral blood supply deficiency, acute disorders of cerebral circulation( transient disturbances, hemorrhages, strokes), chronic slow progressing disorders of cerebral and spinal circulation( discirculatory encephalopathy and myelopathy) are distinguished by the nature of cerebral circulation disorders.
Clinical symptoms of initial manifestations of cerebral blood supply deficiency are emerging, especially after intense mental and physical work, stays in a stuffy room, headache, dizziness, noise in the head, decreased efficiency, sleep disturbance. Focal neurological symptoms in these patients, as a rule, absent or represented by scattered microsymptoms. To diagnose the initial manifestations of cerebral blood supply deficiency, it is necessary to identify objective signs of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, vasomotor dystonia and exclusion of other somatic pathology, as well as neurosis.
Acute disorders of cerebral circulation include transient circulatory disorders in the brain and strokes.
Transitory disorders of the cerebral circulation are manifested by focal or general cerebral symptoms( or a combination of them) that last less than 1 day. Most often they are observed with atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels, hypertensive disease and with arterial hypertension.
There are transient ischemic attacks and hypertensive cerebral crises.
Transient ischemic attacks are characterized by the appearance of focal neurological symptoms( weakness and numbness of the extremities, difficulty in speech, violation of statics, diplopia, etc.) on the background of mild or absent cerebral symptoms.
For hypertensive cerebral crises, on the contrary, the predominance of cerebral symptoms( headache, dizziness, nausea, or vomiting) is prevalent over focal, which sometimes may be absent. Acute disorders of cerebral circulation, in which focal neurological symptoms persist for more than 1 day, is considered a stroke.
To acute disorders of venous circulation in the brain include also venous hemorrhages, thrombosis of cerebral veins and venous sinuses.
Chronic disorders of cerebral circulation( discirculatory encephalopathy and myelopathy) are the result of progressive insufficiency of blood supply caused by various vascular diseases.
With discirculatory encephalopathy, scattered organic symptoms are usually found in combination with memory impairment, headaches, nonsystemic dizziness, irritability, etc. There are 3 stages of discirculatory encephalopathy.
For the I stage, in addition to diffuse, poorly expressed persistent organic symptoms( asymmetry of cranial innervation, light oral reflexes, imprecision of coordination, etc.), a syndrome similar to asthenic neurasthenia is characteristic( memory impairment, fatigue, absent-mindedness, difficulty of switching from one activityon the other, dull headaches, nonsystemic dizziness, bad sleep, irritability, tearfulness, depressed mood).Intellect does not suffer at the same time.
For the II stage is characterized by progressive deterioration of memory( including professional), decreased efficiency, changes in personality( viscosity of thought, narrowing of the circle of interests, apathy, often eloquence, irritability, intolerance, etc.), intellectual decline. Typical daytime sleepiness in a bad night sleep. Organic symptoms are more distinct( mild dysarthria, reflexes of oral automatism and other pathological reflexes, bradykinesia, tremor, changes in muscle tone, coordination and sensitive disorders).
III stage is characterized as a weighting of mental disorders( up to dementia), and the development of neurological syndromes associated with the primary lesion of a certain area of the brain. This can be pseudobulbar paralysis, parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal insufficiency. Frequent stroke-related deterioration of the condition, characterized by the emergence of new focal symptoms and increased earlier signs of cerebrovascular insufficiency.
Discirculatory myelopathy also has a progressive course, in which three stages can be conventionally identified. Stage I( compensated) is characterized by the appearance of moderately pronounced fatigue of the muscles of the extremities, less often the weakness of the limbs. Subsequently, in the II stage( subcompensated), the weakness in the limbs progressively increases, there are violations of sensitivity by segment and conductor type, changes in the reflex sphere. In the III stage, paresis or paralysis develops, marked sensitivity disorders, pelvic disorders.
The nature of focal syndromes depends on the localization of pathological foci along the length and width of the spinal cord. Possible clinical syndromes are poliomyelitis, pyramidal, syringomyelic, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, posterolateral, transverse lesions of the spinal cord.
The chronic venous circulation disorders include venous stasis, which causes venous encephalopathy and myelopathy. It is a consequence of cardiac or pulmonary heart failure, compression of extracranial veins in the neck region, etc. Difficulties of venous outflow from the cranial cavity and spinal canal can be compensated for a long time;with decompensation, headaches, convulsive seizures, cerebellar symptoms, and dysfunction of the cranial nerves are possible. Venous encephalopathy is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. There may be hypertensive( pseudotumorous) syndrome, a syndrome of disseminated small-focal lesions of the brain, asthenic syndrome. Venous encephalopathy also includes bettoleptic( cough epilepsy), which develops in diseases that lead to venous congestion in the brain. Venous myelopathy is a particular variant of discirculatory myelopathy and is clinically not significantly different from the latter.
The causes of this ailment are very diverse. They are usually associated with other abnormalities in the work of the cardiovascular system, for example, with arteriosclerosis of blood vessels or hypertensive disease. Atherosclerosis is a clogging of blood vessels with cholesterol plaques, so it's just necessary to monitor the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. And for this you should monitor your daily diet.
Chronic fatigue also often causes circulatory disorders in our brains. Unfortunately, people often do not realize all the seriousness of their condition and reach terrible consequences. But the syndrome of chronic fatigue can lead not only to a malfunction in the circulation, but also to disruptions in the work of the endocrine system, the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract.
Various craniocerebral injuries can also cause abnormalities. It can be injuries of any severity. Especially dangerous are injuries with intracranial hemorrhage. It is only natural that the more severe this hemorrhage, the more serious consequences it can lead.
The problem of modern man is a regular sitting in front of the computer monitor in an uncomfortable pose. As a result, the muscles of the neck and back are overextended and the blood circulation in the vessels, including the vessels of the brain, is disrupted. Excessive physical activity can also be harmful.
Circulatory problems are also closely related to diseases of the spine, especially the cervical spine. Be careful if you are diagnosed with scoliosis or osteochondrosis.
The main cause of cerebral hemorrhage is high blood pressure. With a sharp rise in it, a rupture of the vessel may occur, which results in the release of blood into the brain substance and the development of an intracerebral hematoma.
The rarer cause of hemorrhage is an aneurysmal rupture. Arterial aneurysm, which, as a rule, relates to congenital pathology, is a saccular protrusion on the vessel wall. The walls of such protrusions do not have such a powerful muscular and elastic framework as the walls of a normal vessel have. Therefore, sometimes only a relatively small jump in pressure, which is observed in quite healthy people with physical exertion or emotional stress, is enough to cause the aneurysm wall to burst.
Along with saccular aneurysms, other congenital abnormalities of the vascular system are sometimes observed, creating a threat of sudden hemorrhage.
In cases where an aneurysm is located in the walls of vessels located on the surface of the brain, its rupture results in the development of a subarachnoid hemorrhage, not subclinical, located under the arachnoid membrane surrounding the brain. Subarachnoid hemorrhage does not directly lead to the development of focal neurological symptoms( paresis, speech disorders, etc.), but with it there are general cerebral symptoms: sudden sharp( "dagger") headache, often with subsequent loss of consciousness.
A cerebral infarction usually develops due to a blockage of one of the cerebral vessels or a large( main) head vessel, through which blood flows to the brain.
There are four main arteries: the right and left internal carotid arteries, supplying the greater part of the right and left cerebral hemisphere, and the right and left vertebral arteries, which then merge into the main artery and supply blood to the brain stem, cerebellum and occipital hemispheres of the brain.
Causes of blockage of the main and cerebral arteries can be different. So, in the inflammatory process on the heart valves( with the formation of infiltrates or with the formation of a wall clot in the heart), pieces of a thrombus or infiltrate can come off and come to a brain vessel whose caliber is smaller than the size of a piece( embolus) and, as a result, clog the vessel. Embolic particles can become and particles of decaying atherosclerotic plaque on the walls of one of the main arteries of the head.
This is one of the mechanisms of developing a cerebral infarct - an embolic one.
Another mechanism for the development of a heart attack is thrombotic: the gradual development of a clot( blood clot) at the site of an atherosclerotic plaque on the vessel wall. Atherosclerotic plaque filling the lumen of the vessel leads to a slowing of the blood flow, which promotes the development of a thrombus. Uneven plaque surface favors in this place gluing( aggregation) of platelets and other elements of blood, which is the main frame of the formed thrombus.
As a rule, some local factors for the formation of thrombus are often not enough. The development of thrombosis is facilitated by factors such as general slowing of blood flow( therefore, thromboses of cerebral vessels, in contrast to embolisms and hemorrhages, usually develop at night, during sleep), increased blood clotting, increased aggregation( gluing) properties of platelets and erythrocytes.
What is blood clotting, everyone knows from experience. The man cut his finger accidentally, the blood begins to flow from it, but gradually a blood clot( thrombus) forms on the cut site and the bleeding stops.
Blood clotting is a necessary biological factor that contributes to our survival. But both reduced and increased coagulation threaten our health and even our very life.
Increased coagulability leads to the development of thromboses, lowered - to bleeding at the slightest cuts and bruises. Hemophilia - a disease accompanied by reduced coagulability of blood and having a hereditary character, suffered many members of the reigning families of Europe and among them the son of the last Russian emperor, Tsarevich Alexei.
Violation of normal blood flow can also be a consequence of spasm( severe compression) of the vessel, resulting from a sharp contraction of the muscular layer of the vascular wall. Several decades ago, spasm was given great importance in the development of cerebral circulation disorders. Currently, cerebral spasm is associated mainly with cerebral infarctions, which sometimes develop a few days after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
With frequent increases in blood pressure, changes in the walls of small vessels that feed deep structures of the brain can develop. These changes lead to narrowing, and often to the closure of these vessels. Sometimes after another sharp rise in blood pressure( hypertensive crisis) in the bloodstream of such a vessel develops a small heart attack( called in the scientific literature "lacunar" infarction).
In some cases, cerebral infarction can develop without complete blockage of the vessel. This is the so-called hemodynamic stroke. Imagine a hose from which you water the garden. The hose is clogged with silt, but the electric motor, lowered into the pond, works well, and a jet of water is enough for normal watering. But enough of a slight bend in the hose or a deterioration of the motor, as instead of a powerful jet from the hose begins to flow a narrow trickle of water, which is clearly not enough to water well the ground.
The same can occur under certain conditions and with a blood flow in the brain. To do this, it is sufficient to have two factors: a sharp narrowing of the lumen of the main or cerebral vessel filling it with an atherosclerotic plaque or as a result of its inflection, plus the drop in arterial pressure due to the deterioration( often temporary) of the heart.
The mechanism of transient disorders of cerebral circulation( transient ischemic attacks) is largely analogous to the mechanism of the development of cerebral infarction. Only compensating mechanisms with transient disorders of the cerebral circulation are triggered quickly, and the developed symptoms disappear for several minutes( or hours).But it is not to be hoped that compensation mechanisms will always be so good at dealing with a breach that has arisen. Therefore, it is so important to know the causes of cerebral circulatory disorders, which makes it possible to develop methods for preventing( preventing) repeated catastrophes.
Treatment of cerebral circulation disorders
Various diseases of the cardiovascular system are the most common ailments among the world's population. A violation of cerebral circulation in general, the thing is extremely dangerous. The brain is the most important organ of our body. Its poor functioning leads not only to physical abnormalities, but also to a disturbance of consciousness.
Treatment of this ailment involves not only taking medicines, but also completely changing one's lifestyle. As already mentioned above, the development of circulatory disorders in the vessels of the brain is promoted by cholesterol plaques. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to prevent the increase in the level of cholesterol in the blood. And the basic measures include proper nutrition. First of all, do the following:
limit the amount of salt used
discard alcoholic beverages
if you have extra pounds - you need to get rid of them urgently, as they create an extra burden on your blood vessels, which is simply unacceptable for this disease
In some people, blood vessels, including capillaries, are fragile. Such people often bleed gums, often there are nosebleeds. How to get rid of this scourge?
In the early stages of the disease occurs asymptomatically. However, it progresses rapidly and gradually its symptoms completely disable a person, seriously deteriorating working capacity, a person loses the joy of life and can not fully live.
So, the symptoms of cerebral circulation disorders include:
headache is the main anxiety bell, but people often ignore it, believing that the pain is caused by fatigue, weather or other causes of
pain in the eyes - its peculiarity is that itmarkedly intensified during the movement of eyeballs, especially towards the evening
dizziness - when such a phenomenon is noted regularly, it should never be ignored
nausea and vomiting - usually this symptom is manifested by the paralysiswith
ear ringing or tinnitus
convulsions - this symptom is less common than others, but there is a numbness in
- if there is a blood circulation in the brain vessels, it occurs absolutely without reason
tension of the head muscles, especially pronounced in the occipital
weakness in the body
heart rate reduction
Various disorders of consciousness are also noted, such as:
change in perception, for example, sensation og
loss of memory - the person perfectly remembers his past, but often he forgets about the plans, about what lies
fast fatigue and as a result of the decrease in efficiency
shortness, mild irritability, tearfulness
persistent drowsiness or vice versa insomnia
Causes of brain disordersblood circulation
• Dissolve a teaspoon of well-treated( food) and finely ground sea salt in a glass of room-temperature water. Cool the saline solution with the nostrils and hold the breath for about 3-4 seconds. Repeat the procedure every morning for 10-12 days, and nosebleeds will stop.
• This method also helps: prepare a saline solution( five tablespoons of large sea salt in a glass of warm water).Make two wads from cotton wool, moisten them in the prepared solution and insert into the nose. Lie with your head back, 20 minutes. The same solution is useful to rinse and mouth: the gums will stop hurting and bleeding.
• Take two tablespoons of dry mustard, two pods of chopped bitter pepper, a tablespoon, sea salt. Mix all the ingredients and add two glasses of vodka. Insist the mixture in a dark place for 10 days. Obtained tincture actively rub your legs at night. After rubbing, put on woolen socks and go to bed.
Age-related changes in blood vessels and the heart greatly limit the adaptive capacity and create the prerequisites for the development of diseases.
Changes in blood vessels. The structure of the vascular wall varies with age in every person. Gradually, the muscle layer of each vessel is atrophied and diminished, its elasticity is lost and sclerotic seals of the inner wall appear. This greatly limits the ability of the vessels to expand and narrow, which is already a pathology. First of all, large arterial trunks, especially the aorta, suffer. In elderly and old people, the number of active capillaries per unit area is significantly reduced. Tissues and organs cease to receive the necessary amount of nutrients and oxygen, and this leads to their starvation and the development of various diseases.
With age, in every person small vessels are more and more "clogged" with calcareous deposits and peripheral vascular resistance increases. This leads to some increase in blood pressure. But the development of hypertension is largely prevented by the fact that with a decrease in the tone of the muscular wall of large vessels the lumen of the venous channel expands. This leads to a decrease in the minute volume of the heart( minute volume - the amount of blood ejected by the heart in a minute) and to an active redistribution of peripheral circulation. Coronary and cardiac circulation usually almost does not suffer from a decrease in the minute volume of the heart, whereas renal and hepatic blood circulation greatly diminishes.
Decreased contractility of the heart muscle. The older the person becomes, the greater the number of muscle fibers of the heart muscle atrophy. The so-called "old heart" develops. Progressive myocardial sclerosis is progressing, and the fibers of the inoperative connective tissue develop on the site of atrophied muscle fibers of the cardiac tissue. The force of the heart contractions is gradually decreasing, the metabolic processes are becoming more and more violated, which creates conditions for energy-dynamic heart failure in conditions of strenuous activity.
In addition, in the elderly, conditional and unconditioned reflexes of blood circulation regulation are manifested, inertness of vascular reactions is becoming more and more evident. Studies have shown that with aging, the effects on the cardiovascular system of various brain structures change. In turn, the feedback also changes - the reflexes coming from the baroreceptors of large vessels are weakened. This leads to a violation of the regulation of blood pressure.
As a result of all the above reasons, the physical performance of the heart decreases with age. This leads to limiting the range of reserve capabilities of the body and reducing the effectiveness of its work.
In case of mild blood flow and blockage of blood vessels, follow the index finger and thumb of one hand with the middle finger of the other hand. Spot massage to hold, pressing with an average effort fingernail on the point, which is located under the nail bed. Massage should be done on both hands, taking him for 1 minute.
Points of influence in thirst. If there is a feeling of thirst, it is necessary to influence the soothing point. The peculiarity of this BAP is that until now in the human body it has not been possible to determine other points associated with the mucosa. A point is located about 1 cm from the tip of the tongue. Massage consists in the form of an easy biting of this point with the front teeth( incisors) with a rhythm of 20 times in 1 min.
Points of influence in sleep disorders. When insomnia should be carried out acupressure of the lower part of the auricle. Massage follows the forefinger and thumbs, wrapping the earlobe on both sides. The biologically active point is located in the middle of the lobe. Sleep will occur more quickly( yuli massage is performed more often on the right side than on the left.)
Figure: Influenza points, coryza, upper respiratory catarrh of the
Acupressure does not replace the necessary medical treatment, especially if surgery is urgently needed( for example,appendicitis, its purulent stage).