How kidney hemodialysis is performed and why it is needed
Renal hemodialysis is a mechanical purification of blood from waste, liquid, salts, which is necessary for patients with insufficient healthy for proper functioning of the kidneys. Hemodialysis is the most common method of treating kidney failure, which allows a person to lead an active lifestyle, despite the organ's malfunctioning.
This is important! Patients who are undergoing hemodialysis need to follow special dietary rules, constantly take medications, do not violate the treatment schedule.
The main hemodialysis is the metabolism through a semi-impermeable membrane that is washed with blood on one side and a dialysate solution on the other. Between the two liquids creates a hydrostatic pressure, due to which the human body eliminates excess fluid. Similarly, harmful components and metabolic products are derived.
The device for hemodialysis consists of three main components, namely:
- Device responsible for blood supply.
- Device responsible for blood supply and preparation of dialysate solution.
Thanks to the roller pump, blood enters the dialyzer with the help of tubes. To this system are attached devices that show the speed of blood and its pressure. After preparation, the dialysate enters the dialyzer from the reservoir.
When the organization of hemodialysis
is required. As a rule.hemodialysis, is conducted in a situation. When the kidneys of a person perform only 10 - 15% of their functions. In this regard, the patient complains of the following symptoms: nausea with vomiting, swelling, fast fatigue.
Hemodialysis takes over part of the kidneys' work - it is responsible for blood pressure indicators, maintains an acceptable electrolyte fluid balance in the body. It also allows to normalize the acid-base balance.
Only a specialist decides when a person needs hemodialysis, given some factors:
- general health;
- degree of kidney function;
- symptoms of defeat;
- the quality of human life;
- personal preferences and wishes of the patient.
Usually, a person is prescribed hemodialysis long before the total failure of the kidneys to work and the development of complications that threaten the patient's life.
Contraindications for carrying out
Even with indications for hemodialysis, it is not always organized. Contraindications to the procedure are relative and absolute.
Relative contraindications include:
- active type of pulmonary tuberculosis;
- diseases that threaten the development of extensive bleeding;
- mental pathologies, such as epilepsy, psychosis or schizophrenia.
- systemic blood loss;
- severe pathology in the work of the nervous system;
- age over 70 years when diagnosed with diabetes mellitus;
- development of two or more additional diseases;
- alcohol abuse in the absence of an interest in social rehabilitation.
Nutritional guidelines for hemodialysis
A diet for hemodialysis of the kidneys suggests a decrease in the accumulation of vital products in the blood. When selecting a diet, the following rules must be adhered to:
- The daily menu should have an acceptable amount of foods rich in protein. This includes meat, chicken and fish.
- Control of potassium intake. It is a part of substitutes for salt, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, nuts and dried fruits. With an increase in the concentration of potassium in the blood, there is a disruption in the work of the heart.
- Limitation of fluid intake, which will depend on the disease itself, which provoked kidney failure. As a rule, in the intervals between the procedures, the patient's body weight should not increase by more than 5% of the initial weight. When large amounts of liquid enter the body, edema, complications of the heart, lungs and other organs can appear, blood pressure rises.
- Restriction of consumption of table salt, because too salty food causes intense thirst and delays fluid in the body. In this situation, the disease is actively developing.
- Sometimes a doctor prescribes the use of medication to normalize the metabolism of phosphorus and calcium, a disorder that often occurs in people who visit hemodialysis. It will also be necessary to limit the use of products rich in phosphorus to a maximum.