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  • Colpitis in women: symptoms and treatment, reasons, photo

    What is it and how to treat it? Colpitis is an inflammatory lesion of the vaginal mucosa. Another name for this pathological process is vaginitis.

    This is the most common gynecological disease that causes women to seek help from a doctor.

    Classification


    There are several varieties of colpitis. The main species are:

    1. 1) Specific colpitis caused by pathogenic microorganisms affecting the vagina( candidiasis, trichomonas colpitis and other species)
    2. 2) Nonspecific colpitis caused by conditionally pathogenic microorganisms( staphylococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli, etc.)
    3. 3) Atrophic colpitis.

    Causes of colpitis


    The causes of colpitis in women differ depending on its type - atrophic, candida, trichomonadal, etc. However, in principle, there are two main types:

    1. 1) Infectious-dependent
    2. 2) Atrophic - is not associated with direct infection by microorganisms of the walls of the vagina.
    It is customary to identify predisposing factors that significantly increase the likelihood of inflammation in the vaginal mucosa. These include:


    • Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the reproductive organs of a woman
    • infections that are sexually transmitted
    • disorders of the ovarian-menstrual cycle
    • systemic endocrine diseases that affect the condition of the genitals
    • The negative side of taking antibiotics, especially the long-term administration of these medicationsso before prescribing antibiotics the doctor always weighs all indications and contraindications)
    • douching of the genitals
    • acceptance of vaginal showers
    • introduction and wearing of intrauterine contraceptives
    • traumatic injuries of external genital organs
    • oncological processes
    • pregnancy that leads to physiological decrease of immunity
    • exposure to negative environmental factors( radiation, chemical compounds)
    • wearing of linen that fits tightly to the body
    • the presence of fistulas between the wall of the rectum and the vagina, as well as between the bladder and the vagina
    • constipation, when activethe conditionally pathogenic flora
    • climacteric disorders reflecting on the state of the vaginal epithelium.
    Thus, infectious-dependent inflammation of the vaginal walls can be associated with infection by pathogenic microorganisms or activation of opportunistic microflora on the background of a decrease in immunity.

    Atrophic colpitis develops in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, when the estrogen level is sharply reduced. Against this background, there is an atrophy of multilayered flat epithelium and a change in the vaginal biocenosis.

    The main causative agents of infectious colpitis are the following:

    • Trichomonas
    • Candida
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Escherichia coli
    • Proteus
    • Staphylococci
    • Streptococci and others.

    Colpitis symptoms in women


    In women, the main clinical symptoms of colpitis are the presence of abnormal secretions from the genital tract( most commonly, copious leucorrhoea), and also:

    • vaginal odor
    • genital itching
    • redness of the vaginal mucosa
    • pruritus and urine when urinating, since urine irritates the inflamed walls of the vagina
    • during pain during intercourse.
    Beli is a typical symptom of colpitis in women. This is one of the most frequent complaints of patients on a gynecological appointment. According to statistical data, this symptom meets with a frequency of 10 to 95%, since not always women pay attention to these manifestations.

    Diagnosis of colpitis


    Diagnosis of colpitis in women is often not difficult. The entire diagnostic search should be aimed at identifying the possible cause of this pathological process.

    For this purpose, the following additional research methods are shown:

    1. 1) Carrying out a vaginal examination. To the doctor it is necessary to come without preliminary washing, as it promotes removal of pathological vydeleny from genital ways. If a woman takes antibiotics, then the vaginal examination and taking smears for microscopy is performed not earlier than three days after the end of antibiotic therapy.
    2. 2) Microscopy of vaginal and urethral swabs. Colpitis is characterized by an increase in the level of leukocytes in them, and an increase in the level of epithelial cells can also be observed.
    3. 3) Determine the acidity of the vaginal contents. Normally, the environment in the vagina is acidic.
    4. 4) Assessment of microorganisms( their number and species composition) in the vagina
    5. 5) Exclusion or confirmation of trichomonas infection, which in acute form is most often detected with microscopy of vaginal discharge.
    6. 6) Study for possible urogenital infections. For this, polymerase chain reaction methods are used, which is the "gold" standard in the diagnosis of these infections, and serological reactions aimed at detecting antibodies to microorganisms can be used. The latter study is less reliable than the polymerase chain reaction. It necessarily includes the determination of the level of immunoglobulins of both acute and chronic immune response. Only on the basis of this can diagnose an acute urogenital infection.
    7. 7) A biopsy study, which is indicated in case of suspicion of an oncologic process. The results of histology are fundamental in establishing a benign or malignant neoplasm.

    Treatment of colpitis in women


    Primarily, colpitis treatment depends on its type. Thus, infectious-dependent colpitis in women is treated according to the following complex program:

    • antibacterial therapy taking into account the sensitivity of the isolated microorganisms
    • drugs that reduce the manifestations of an allergic reaction in the vagina
    • local anti-inflammatory drugs
    • use of medicinal herbs
    • physiotherapy treatment
    • restoration of normal vaginal microflora
    • vitamin therapy,aimed at strengthening the immunity
    • treatment of sexual partners when confirmedand infections that are sexually transmitted.
    For the treatment of atrophic colpitis hormonal therapy is used, namely local forms of estrogen preparations. These drugs can restore the processes of natural epithelial recovery, as well as normalize the species and quantitative composition of the microflora.

    Treatment with hormonal drugs is carried out for a long time( from 3 to 6 months).Initially, therapy is given a saturating dose of hormones, and then a supporting dose. It looks like this:

    1. 1) The first 2 weeks, estriol suppositories are injected into the vagina every day
    2. 2) After that, they are prescribed once in three days, that is, 2 times a week.
    In some cases, the purpose of systemic hormone therapy is indicated for the treatment of atrophic colpitis. However, in this situation, it is necessary to take into account possible contraindications and side effects of these drugs.

    Complications of


    The absence of timely treatment of colpitis in women leads to the development of a number of complications. As a rule, they are of an infectious and inflammatory nature and are associated with the spread of infection beyond the vagina. These complications include:

    1. 1) Cervicitis - inflammation of the vaginal portion of the cervix and / or cervical canal
    2. 2) Endometritis - inflammation of the inner layer of the uterus
    3. 3) Adnexitis, or salpingo-oophoritis - inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries simultaneously( their isolated lesion is extremely rare, due to proximitylocation of these organs).
    In addition to these complications, there may be others:

    • infertility
    • obstruction of the fallopian tubes
    • syndrome of chronic pelvic pain
    • pain during intercourse.
    In conclusion, it should be noted that colpitis is one of the most common diseases of the female reproductive system. However, not all women seek help from a gynecologist.

    This contributes to the chronicization of the pathological process and the violation of the normal state of the female reproductive system. Therefore, it is quite natural conclusion - the earlier a woman comes to see a gynecologist, the less the consequences will be for her health.


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