• X-ray examination of the kidneys, its advantages and disadvantages

    X-ray examination of the kidneys in many situations becomes crucial in the diagnosis of a particular pathology.

    When the inserted contrast medium reaches the kidneys, it fills their pelvis and calyx, then the ureters, after which a whole series of shots is taken. Intravenously, a contrast agent is administered in the excretory type of urography and infusion urography. In the latter case, the contrast is introduced into the vein gradually with the help of a dropper. The infusion type of urography makes it possible to obtain more clear images.

    In the implementation of retrograde uropielography, a contrast agent is injected through a special catheter through the canal to the bladder, then penetrates up into the ureters, pelvis and kidneys.

    The most common species is excretory urography.

    X-ray examination of the kidneys makes it possible to diagnose a variety of pathologies of the urinary system. You can establish the presence of congenital abnormalities in development, the absence of the kidney, its doubling, unusual arrangement of the body, too large or too small a size. With urolithiasis, stones can be examined, and it is also possible to diagnose tumor neoplasms in the kidneys. Urography also allows us to distinguish the length, shape and location of the ureters, their tumor, if any, and the condition for which urine is reversed into the ureters from the bladder.

    Retrograde uropielography allows you to see changes in the shape and size of the bladder and its tumor.

    Indications for diagnosis

    The main indications of the urography include:

    • Systematic damage to the urinary system by infections.
    • Signs of development of renal colic.
    • The presence of blood in the urine.
    • Symptoms of urolithiasis.
    • Detection of well-being and condition of the patient after surgery.
    • With the development of the symptoms of the presence of stones in the kidneys, ureter or bladder, it is possible to recognize the exact place of their localization.

    Preparation and diagnosis

    Preparation for X-ray examination of the kidneys is as follows:

    • The doctor explains to the patient the need for organizing this survey, and also tells who and how will implement the study.
    • Until the time of diagnosis, you need to give up eating for 8 hours, consume more water. Three days before the diagnosis, foods that provoke enhanced gas formation are removed from the diet, and activated charcoal is administered.
    • If necessary, put a cleansing enema.
    • A laboratory blood test is being organized.
    • The list of medications taken by the patient is established.
    • The patient or his family must give written consent for the diagnosis.
    • The possibility of developing a hypersensitivity reaction to contrast agents is established.
    • In the absence of allergic reactions, a control sample is organized.
    • Before the examination, the patient should remove any metal jewelry and objects, empty the bladder and put on an operating gown.
    • The doctor warns in advance about the possibility of a burning sensation, nausea, redness of the skin after the introduction of a contrast agent.
    • Before the beginning of the examination, the patient is given to drink sedatives or analgesics.
    • Initially, an overview diagnosis, and then - intravenous, accompanied by the introduction of contrast.
    • In conclusion, a series of images is taken at the same time.

    A few hours before the diagnosis, 2 ml of contrast medium is injected into the patient and the reaction to it is checked.in the absence of allergy symptoms, the patient is administered a dose of the drug, which is calculated individually for each patient. After a few minutes, an X-ray is taken. Depending on the purpose of the survey, you can only use one image.

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