Jul 05, 2018
Cholera is an intestinal infection that is characterized by a violation of water-salt metabolism and is accompanied by dehydration of the body. The cause of the disease is cholera vibrio. The source of the disease is a person, a patient or a carrier of cholera vibrio. Cholera vibrios enter the human body with food or water. Get into the stomach, and then into the intestines. In the small intestine, the vibrios multiply and release exotoxin. This, in turn, damages the cells of the intestine and leads to the secretion of water and salts in the lumen of the intestine. All this man loses with diarrhea and vomiting. Thus comes dehydration.
Manifestations of the disease develop 1-5 days after infection( this period is called incubation).Cholera begins acutely with a fever of 38 ° C and diarrhea. Cal is watery, looks like a rice broth. Vomiting also occurs sharply, without previous nausea. Vomit has the appearance of rice decoction. The patient feels dryness in the mouth, weakness and malaise. There are cramps in the muscles, mainly in the calves. The severity of the disease is due to the degree of dehydration of the body. I degree of dehydration is characterized by a loss of 3% of body weight( due to fluid loss).In such patients, there is a frequent mushy stool. Vomiting may not be, there are no violations of the blood composition either.
II degree of dehydration is characterized by a loss of 4-6% of body weight due to increased excretion of water. Frequent watery feces and vomiting are noted. Skin pale, dry. The voice weakens, blood pressure decreases, the heart rate increases. The amount of daily urine decreases.
III degree of dehydration is characterized by a loss of 7-9% of body weight. Vomiting and diarrhea are multiple. The patient has convulsions, thirst, hoarse voice, lower body temperature. Typical hoarseness of voice, lower blood pressure, palpitations, lack of urine.
IV degree of dehydration is characterized by a loss of 10% of body weight. Vomiting and diarrhea are almost continuous. The patient's voice disappears, the skin is cold, pale with a cyanotic shade and sticky to the touch. Shock develops.
Diagnosis of the disease is based on manifestations of the disease and epidemiological history( use of non-disinfected water and stay for the past several days in the localities with outbreaks of cholera).
To clarify the diagnosis, vomit and feces are analyzed for the presence of an agent in them.
Treatment of the disease is strictly in the infectious hospital. The patient needs urgent rehydration, that is, replenishment of lost fluid. It is also necessary to replenish the lost salts. To combat the causative agent of the disease, antibacterial agents are prescribed.
Prognosis of the disease with timely and adequate treatment is favorable.
Prevention of the disease consists in the use of benign drinking water, sanitary control over the quality and storage of products, the neutralization of sewage.
Persons who have undergone cholera are on dispensary observation for 3 months, since during this period they are carriers of cholera vibrio.