• Irrigation of flowering plants

    Water in plant life is one of the main factors of their growth and development. In shoots, leaves, roots of plants contains about 80 percent of water. All the physiological and biochemical processes taking place in the organs of plants are performed normally only when there is a sufficient amount of water. The optimal amount of water should be in the soil, from where the plants take moisture and nutrients.

    Flower plants are mostly hygrophilous: lemon, hyacinth, aster, salvia, rose, tulip, reseda, carnation, lily, chrysanthemum, etc. Petunia, portulacus, alissum, etc. need less water. The need for water is determined by the structure of the aerial organs, the capacity of the root system, the degree of growth and development of plants. Thus, plants with large, delicate leaves, with a large number of stomata, and plants with a superficial root system( primrose phlox, etc.).most often require a large number of watering.

    Consumption of moisture from the soil can be different depending on the type and density of planting. The moisture content in the soil is affected by climatic and soil conditions, the depth of groundwater, the soil treatment system, the location of the site on the ground, etc. Loamy soils, unlike sandy loam soils, have a high moisture capacity and considerable water retention capacity. Therefore, plants growing on them are watered less often, but higher standards.

    The need for irrigation is often determined by the appearance of plants - the wilting of leaves in the afternoon hours. It is more correct to set the irrigation time for the moisture content of the active soil layer, that is, the layer in which the bulk of the root system is located. For shrubs this layer will be up to 50-60, for annuals and perennials - up to 30-40 centimeters.

    In the areas of the Central Chernozem zone, annuals, perennials and shrubs begin to water from May. Previously, watering is not always necessary, since in the soil there is a sufficient supply of moisture from the autumn-winter precipitation. In production conditions, depending on the weather, the soil humidity over the summer for shrubs gives from two to four watering at intervals of 25-30 days, for annuals and perennials - three to five watering.

    The irrigation norm for shrubs is 400-500, for annuals and perennials - 300-400 cubic meters.meters per hectare. The latter have a small root system, often lack moisture in the soil. They need watering more often, but with lower standards.

    In homestead plots where plants are planted thicker and use more moisture, and the rowing soil is not always contained under black steam, watering plants occurs sooner and more often.

    Most plants stop watering by mid-August, but continue watering plants that bloom for the second time in late summer - lupine, delphinium, phlox, and a peony planting flower buds in late summer and autumn.

    In dry autumn and low humidity, there is a need to give perennial plants a sub-winter watering( end of September, October).This improves the wintering of plants, reduces the number of waterings in the next year.

    Industrial plantations of open ground plants are watered both by surface method and by sprinkling.

    Of the surface methods, the simplest and most common is-furrow irrigation. It is used in areas with a sufficiently leveled soil relief and gradients of 0.002-0.008( for a 1000 meter length, the terrain is reduced from two to eight meters).With large inclines, the water will pass through the furrows very quickly, wash them out and soak up poorly in the soil, at small - move poorly, wet the soil in some places and mow in others.

    On the furrows watered shrubby cultures( lilac, jasmine), where there are wide aisles for the passage of soil cultivating units and tools for cutting irrigation furrows. The distance between the axes of the furrows, their length depend on the type and slope of the soil surface, the magnitude of the irrigation norm. So, in chernozem soils, furrows make a depth of 12-14 centimeters from the level of the soil surface with a distance between them of 60-80 centimeters. The length of the furrows varies from 50 to 200 meters or more.

    In ordinary crops of annuals or perennials, the furrows are usually shallow, cut between rows, but in such a way that the soil does not fall asleep when cutting the plant.

    On light and medium-sized soils with ordinary crops, furrows are cut with a hoe cultivator-hiller KOH-2,8.The cultivator is hung on tractors T-28 and "Belarus" of all modifications. The frame of the cultivator is fastened from three to five hilling bodies. The width of the tool's grip is 2.4-2.8 meters, the productivity is up to 1.4 hectares per hour:

    In the interrowing of shrubbery, furrow furrows can be cut by furrow cutters installed on the garden wide-spread cultivator KC1P-5B.On the frame of the cultivator there are four furrows with distances between them of 83 centimeters. The width of the gun is 3.3 meters. The depth of slicing is adjustable from 10 to 25 centimeters from the soil level. The gun is aggregated with tractors "Belarus", T-54V, DT-75 and is serviced by a tractor operator. After watering, furrows are closed with garden disc and tooth harrows, cultivators.

    An effective way of watering plants is sprinkling. With it, the soil is evenly and sufficiently deeply moistened, it is easier to observe irrigation norms, the plants are washed with rain drops and cleaned of dust, harmful insects. Useful soil microorganisms better activate their activities.

    Industry produces a number of sprinkler systems and machines. Among them there are short-blast, medium-jet and long-jet.

    Short-sprinkling sprinkler KDU-55M is widely used for watering floral plants. It consists of 70 five-meter aluminum pipes, from which two sprinkling wings 150 meters long with sprayers and an auxiliary pipeline( located perpendicular to them) are collected with 6 hydrants installed on the pipeline every 10 meters. To the hydrants, the sprinkling irrigation wings, transferred alternately by the watering workers, are connected: while one wing is running, the second one is transferred. The auxiliary pipeline, in turn, is connected to a stationary or temporary irrigation network, through which water is supplied from a source of water.

    Flow rate of liquid KDU-55M-25 l / sec( 90 m3 / h), head at the beginning of the wing - 25 meters of water column. The productivity of the machine depends on the size of the irrigation norms( see Table 8).Seasonal load on KDU 55M is 30-40 hectares of irrigated area.

    Watering KDU-55M is produced by bilateral and one-sided watering schemes. With a two-sided design, the sprinkler pipes are positioned at right angles on both sides of the auxiliary pipeline. From position to position, the wings are transferred after 10 meters. In a one-sided scheme, both sprinklers are located on one side of the auxiliary pipeline and the pipes are transferred through a position, that is, 20 meters away.

    In all cases, it is necessary that the sprinkler wings are located along the contours of the terrain, that is, at the lowest slope. This will ensure the uniform operation of the nozzles, prevent the washing of the soil and damage to the plants from the pipes merging from the pipes when switching the wings.

    For irrigation of large areas of flower-ornamental plants, under conditions of a flat terrain, a two-console sprinkler unit DDA-100M is used.

    DDA-100M is a 100-meter long pipe-mounted console with short-jet nozzles mounted on the tractor. The water flow is 100-120 liters per second, the width of the rain capture is 115-120 meters, the productivity for one hour at the rate of irrigation is 300 cubic meters.meters per hectare - 0.7-0.8 hectares. Currently, this is one of the most high-performance machines.

    The sprinkler takes water from the temporary irrigation systems, which are 120 meters apart. The length of sprinklers depending on the terrain can be from 200-300 to 600-800 meters. In operation, the unit moves at a low speed along the sprinkler. The seasonal load on the DDA-100M is 100-150 hectares of irrigated area.

    In production, medium-jet sprinklers and installations characterized by a low rain intensity are produced, which allows watering without the formation of puddles and surface runoff even in areas with a slope, and also at relatively high irrigation rates. They require for their work a higher pressure of water supplied to them.

    The SDA-2M mid-jet sprinklers produced by the Kursk Mechanical Repair Plant are installed 15-20 meters apart on the sprinkler wings of the KDU-55M.The position of the wings is placed after 20 meters. The apparatus operates at a water pressure of 2.5-3 atmospheres and with a flow rate of 2 liters per second. The flight range of the jet is 16-20 meters. The trunk of the device rotates about its axis during operation. The jet of water that emerges from it breaks up into droplets as the flight progresses, moistening the soil. The application of SDA-2M mid-sprinklers allows to increase labor productivity on watering, to facilitate the work of the waterers, while the humid soil is trampled down and the plants are damaged, since the pipes are less frequent.

    The UD-25 mid-jet sprinkler has two springs 135 meters long and at right angles to them an auxiliary pipeline 45 meters long. The latter is attached to the hydrants of the irrigation network. On sprinkler wings, after 20 meters from each other, sprinklers are placed operating at a pressure of 2.5-3 atmospheres. While working one wing on. The next position is transferred and another is mounted. The wing spends 25 liters per second and captures 0.4 hectares of watering the area. At the irrigation norm of 300 cubic meters.meters per hectare, the productivity of the sprinkler is 0.4 hectares per hour. Serving her one or two workers. Seasonal load - 25-30 hectares of irrigated area.

    Also used for irrigation long-distance sprinkler DDN-45 in the unit with tractors DT-54A, T-74, DT-75.

    The unit has a high maneuverability, it can work in areas with complex terrain. With pre-planting and planting watering, it is easy to give small irrigation rates. At work, the trampling of soil and plants is excluded, as it often happens when carrying pipes KDU-55M.

    Normal operation of the sprinkler, as well as in general of all sprinklers, is possible at a wind speed of not more than two meters per second. Strong wind blows the jet, significantly worsening the quality of watering. In windy weather should be watered on the sector - in the direction of the wind. Water better early in the morning, in the evening or at night, when the wind subsides.

    On shrubbery, in collective gardens, in parks, squares shrubs, annuals and perennials with their striped arrangement and flat relief of the soil surface are poured along longitudinal grooves, which are made a shovel or hoe. With a mixed arrangement of plants or a complex relief around the bushes, longitudinal-transverse, ring grooves or wide bowls are arranged. To keep the moisture on the politic site, furrows are mulched with loose soil.

    Many amateur flower growers water the plants from the water supply network with a rubber hose, directing the spray to plants and soil. A jet of water under pressure destroys the structure of the soil and can damage plants.

    It is recommended for irrigation to lay one or several threads of water pipes along the length of the plot. They make holes for the discharge of water into the grooves or install various types of sprayers. But pipes can interfere with soil cultivation, plant care. Therefore, it is better to make small portable sprinklers.

    The work on irrigation is facilitated, the water is sprayed into small drops, it is well washed by plants from dust, pests, the soil is moistened evenly and deeply enough. This improves the microclimate of the irrigated area, the plants develop well and blossom.

    Portable sprinkler( see figure) is made of 7g and 3/4-inch water pipes and fittings to them. In the place of watering, the sprinkler is strengthened by means of a crutch and a pedal.

    The body of the nozzle and cone should be made of metal that does not undergo corrosion - bronze, stainless steel, etc. By adjusting the cone with respect to the outlet of the nozzle, it is possible to obtain a different flow and spray of water, up to "water dust".With different headings supplied to the water sprinkler, you can increase or decrease the watering area. Water to the sprinkler is supplied from the water supply network, the irrigation system pipelines or the water tank section installed on the elevated part. For normal operation of the sprinkler, the pressure is about one atmosphere. The water consumption is 1 liter per second.

    A portable sprinkler system with a larger catchment area( see Fig.) Consists of a sprinkler wing 1 with three nozzles 2 placed on it, a vertical feed tube 3 and a tripod 5. A hose 8 is attached to the inlet pipe. At the top of the tripod there is a ring withscrew 4 for securing the supply pipe and installing the sprinkler wing to the required height. The supply pipe and the sprinkler are made from a 3/4 inch water pipe, 120 centimeters long. The ends of the sprinkler tube brew or screw the plugs on them. The lengths of the tubes for screwing them onto the nozzles are made of 1/2-inch tubes 4 to 6 cm in length. The pylon is made of angular( 20x20) or round( 10-12 mm in diameter) steel. To connect the metal parts, gas or electric welding is used.

    The nozzle( see figure) consists of a body, a cone and a holder. The body and the cone are turned on a lathe made of steel. Cone tinned or made of bronze, brass. The point is set exactly above the center of the hole and the holder is welded to the body. In the body of the nozzle, two or three holes with a diameter of 4 mm are made for the discharge that accumulates on the bottom of the bowl of water.

    The water emitted from the nozzle is sprayed in the form of rain, irrigating up to 10 sq. M.meters of area and more.

    Recently sprinklers for irrigation of individual gardens and kitchen gardens have been on sale. They are arranged according to the principle of the "Segner wheel".The sprinkler consists of a horizontal tube with two spray heads, a short vertical tube connecting the horizontal tube to the water supply hose. Everything is fixed on a low stand, supported by two skis.

    The work of the sprinkler is due to reactive recoil of the water jet, which escapes from the two spray heads hinged on the curved ends of the tube. The tube, rotating, sprinkles water within a radius of several meters. By deflecting spray heads, the speed of rotation and the amount of irrigation area can be changed. When installing the spray heads vertically, the rotation of the tube stops and only a small area where the sprinkler is installed is watered.