Harvesting and storing vegetables
Jul 02, 2018
The harvesting of a variety of vegetable crops is carried out throughout the summer season, beginning with the ripening of the earliest species. Leaves of lettuce, spinach, watercress begin to collect from the second half of June, cutting off or breaking off at the stalk.
Beam harvesting begins with at the end of June and continues until mid-July. For summer consumption, harvesting is carried out selectively when the diameter of the roots of carrots reaches 1 - 1.5 cm, turnips - 5-8, and trousers - 8-12 cm. Radish is removed in 3-4 times, starting from the middle of July. The leaves of parsley and celery are cut when they reach a height of 20 cm( in leaves 2-3 cuts per season).
At the end of June starts cleaning the broccoli inflorescences. They are removed before the buds are blossomed, do not wait for the heads to grow, as they become loose, their taste is reduced. Cut the heads with a diameter of 8-20 cm with a stem of 5-6 cm. After cutting the central head in the axils of the leaves after 5 to 6 days, lateral ones appear, which are removed as they mature. The heads remain in hot weather for 1-2 days, in the cool - 5-6 days.
At the same time, selective harvesting of early-ripe and cauliflower begins. Approximately from the middle of July begin to ripen peas, beans, beans. Pods of sugar varieties of peas on the scapula are collected regularly for 30-40 days( the seeds in them only begin to form).Woody varieties are removed when the pods lose their green color, and the pea is easily crushed by the finger.
Beans on the spatula are removed for 15-20 days after flowering selectively, as it ripens, when the scapula reaches its normal size, the peas are still small, but juicy. Beans for grain are harvested in one step, when most beans are ripe. They are dried together with the stalk, and then threshed.
Beans begin to clean in milk ripeness, when the seeds in the pods become large, but the furrow does not turn black. Take them off selectively every 5-10 days, starting from July 1 - 10.Finally, the beans are removed when mass formation of the pods on the plant takes place.
Pepper fruits reach a removable ripeness 30-45 days after ovary formation. Collections are held regularly, starting in the second half of July, without restraining them on plants. Fruits are used for food in technical and biological ripeness( green and red).From technical to biological ripeness is 25-35 days. Harvest is stored in baskets or boxes at a temperature of 8-10 ° C and relative humidity of 80-85 %. The container should be clean, as the pepper easily absorbs foreign smells. From the middle of July, it is time to harvest tomatoes from plants planted in greenhouses or heated greenhouses. At the same time each bush is looked through, the ugly upper ovaries are removed. If there are plants that differ in ripeness and yield, with beautiful tasty fruits, they are marked with colored ribbons and left on seeds. In the hotbeds at the end of July, they pinch the tops of tall tomatoes and eggplants. At the courgette and the patisson in July, young ovaries are removed regularly - 2-3 days later, in the period of mass fruiting - more often. In green-leaved zucchini the period of technical ripeness is long, its fruits do not age for a long time, but 2-5-day ovaries with a tender flesh and seeds in an embryonic state have a special value.
From mid-July, remove early white cabbage, cauliflower and kohlrabi. In some years( with heavy rain), the heads are removed earlier.
Mass harvesting of vegetables - cucumbers, tomatoes, courgettes, squash - begins in August, at the same time continues harvesting cabbage, pepper, eggplants, carrots and other crops.
Cucumbers are harvested every other day in the morning, pressing the thumb with the peduncle. Plants at the same time try not to turn and do not move. If the whips are strongly yellowed, do not put off the salting fruit for September.
Tomatoes are removed at a time when the fruits will turn red or brown. In the cool summer, do not wait until they ripen on the root, and remove the brown, whitened and even green and toss in a dry room or hotbeds. Fruits are harvested with a peduncle. Cleaning is completed before the onset of cold nights( 8 ° C).Store the tomatoes in a warm room. The cultivars Gruntovy Gribovsky 1180, Alpateva 905a, Dwarf 1185 are distinguished for high quality. Peculiarly continue to remove the sweet and semi-sharp pepper. The acute is removed in the phase of biological ripeness, when the pods become shrunken with a thin flesh. In August, the early carrots are removed from the sowing period for autumn and winter consumption and pickles.
Cleaning of early and cauliflower continues. Medium-ripening varieties begin to keep up with the third decade of August. Heads are cut down with a sharp heavy knife or ax. Kohlrabi is removed selectively, when the thickness of the stem will reach 5-8 cm in diameter. Dense, healthy, undamaged heads are taken for storage.
Onions are removed in the first half of August, when yellowing and light drying of the leaves begins, lodging of the foliage. Following the onion-sowing, when mass grinding and lodging of the tops are removed the onion-turnip. On light soils, they pull it out, and on heavy soils they break through with pitchforks.
Simultaneously with the onion, garlic is removed. The first to start harvesting single-toothed bulb-cakes. The general sign of the ripening of garlic is the cessation of the formation of new leaves. In non-stalking varieties, the leaves turn yellow, the bulging caps on the bulb cracks, cracked wrappers form on the bulbs, the head becomes ribbed. When delayed with cleaning, the teeth are torn off the overall shirt and scattered. This garlic is not suitable for long-term storage. Bow onion, onion and garlic for 4-5 days stand in the sun, dried with a top. The arrows of the oncoming varieties of onions are cut, put on the cases of a gauze pouch and hung in a dry room for aging.
In wet weather, the bulbs are laid out in one layer under a canopy or greenhouse frame and periodically turned over to avoid the occurrence of diseases. After drying, the tops of the sowing are kept at a temperature of 35-40 ° C for 20-30 days. After 10 days after drying, the tops and roots are cut, the bulbs are sorted by size. Bulbs with a diameter of more than 3 cm are left, sorted and used for food. Store the fire in a warm room.
After drying, the onions and garlic are cut respectively to 3-4 and 4-5 cm( from the shoulders).In order for the bulbs to lie well in winter, they should have at least 3 dense outer scales.
During the winter storage, onions harvested in rainy weather often become ill with cervical decay. Therefore, after drying such onion before laying for storage, it is heated at a temperature of 43 ° C for 8 hours. In September, cleaning of courgettes, squash, pumpkin, eggplant, fizalis, root crops and cabbage is over. Collected in technical ripeness, the fruits of squash and patissoni can be stored for 2-3 weeks wrapped in film, tracing paper or in enamel ware on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, without covering with glass. By harvesting the pumpkins begin before the onset of frost in dry weather. The signs of the maturity of its fruits are the shrinkage and cambering of the peduncle, a well-marked pattern on the cortex and its hardening. Collecting the ripened fruit, they are carefully cut from the peduncle, sorted by size and quality. Fruits with mechanical damages and immature ones are used immediately, and those intended for long-term storage are dried and heated in the sun for 8-10 days. If the nights are cold, the fruits are covered with mats or straw for the night. In rainy weather, the pumpkins are dried under a canopy to evaporate excess moisture, the bark is hardened and less exposed to harmful microorganisms.
Eggplant fruits are harvested when they begin to be brewed. Delay with cleaning leads to the hardening of fruits and the appearance of a bitter taste. Cut the eggplant along with the peduncle, which provides better preservation. The last( green) fruits are taken together with the plant, which is suspended in a warm room by the roots upwards for dosage.
Fisals begin to ripen when the cup is painted in a bright orange color. The decorative forms at this time cut the shoots, remove the leaves, bind them in bundles and hang them in a dry place for use in winter bouquets. From fruits of vegetable физалиса jam prepare, prepare candied fruits. Terms of harvesting of root crops( beets, carrots, parsley, celery, parsnip, etc.) are determined depending on weather and biological characteristics of varieties. Root beet beans, pouring, protrude above the ground and suffer the stronger at first frosts than in other crops. Therefore, the beets are removed first after the first frost. But it is an honor that immature vegetables are poorly prepared for winter storage, since their shells are still weak, easily vulnerable, and overripe vegetables easily crack, coarse to taste. Timely harvested crop is easier to keep. When the first cracking fruits of beets and carrots begin to clean up these vegetables. Harvest the roots in dry weather, digging them with a shovel or pitchforks. Then clean the turnips, parsley, radish, celery, pulling root crops from the ground, brush off the remains of the soil and cut the tops flush with the shoulders, but without touching the fabric. You can leave up to 0.5 cm petioles when pruning. Beetroot and rutabaga do not cut the leaves, but twist level with the head, since the roots are very juicy and flow with juice. Lower roots in root crops are not cut to avoid diseases. Then, root crops are dried and sorted a little: healthy and large are stored, small and damaged are used for processing or for animal feed.
In September, they continue to harvest medium-ripening varieties of white, colored, red, Savoy and Brussels sprouts. White cabbage is used for salting, the rest is stored for storage in a fresh form. To do this, leave 3-4 cover sheets and a stump in 2-3 cm. This protects the heads from contamination, bruises, and when stored - from diseases with gray rot. For sauerkraut, clean up the white leaves. For storage in fresh form, dense, undamaged heads are selected. Savoy and red cabbage are laid on shelves in 1-2 layers. The Brussels cabbage kochanchiki cut off or cut, when they become hard and reach the size of a walnut. To clean them start from the bottom of the plants. When the stalk does not leave the head buds, the top of the plants can also be used for food as a green culture.
For many years spicy aromatic cultures, at the end of September, all plants are cut at 2-5 cm from the soil surface, bundled into bundles and dried in a well-ventilated room. The properties of spicy crops are preserved during drying.
In October all harvesting work is completed. This month, the danger of nocturnal and daytime frosts on the ground is already great, so it is necessary to finish cleaning before the frost harms the fruits and they become unfit for winter storage. In October, the green cultures sown in August are removed: dill, spinach, lettuce, onions on a green feather. Complete the harvesting of root crops. Radish, parsnip and celery are excavated with garden forks or a shovel, since they are deep in the soil, the tops are cut at the neck level. Small roots of celery and parsley leave for the winter.
Root crops should be cleaned very carefully, so as not to damage. If the soil is too dry and compacted, it is recommended to water it the day before harvesting, to facilitate the extraction of root crops. After harvesting, root crops are cleaned from the ground and leaves are removed, cutting the tops very carefully, so as not to damage the root of the root crop, or tearing it off.
It's time to clean the late-ripening varieties of white cabbage and Brussels sprouts. The first for seed purposes and storage for storage is pulled out with roots. The cabbage is removed at the latest possible time, while the Brussels plant is completely buried with the plant in the basement to continue its further growth, which extends the consumption period by 1.5 months.
Cabbage of late varieties, intended for winter storage, can be left on the bed even before the beginning of November under average weather conditions, since even in cold autumn weather it continues to grow intensively.
For outdoor storage fresh species of Amager 611, Gift 2500, Wintering 1474 are suitable for long-term storage. The cabbage of Brussels sprouts can be stored in baskets at a temperature of 0 ° C for 10-12 days. For the winter storage, healthy dense head of cabbage cabbage is harvested, stored, like medium-sized varieties, on shelves or suspended at a temperature of 0-2 ° C.Spinach is cleaned up to frosts, the plants are not washed, as its keeping quality is reduced. Store spinach is recommended in cellophane bags at a temperature of -1-2 ° C, where it persists for 2 months. During the whole of October, before the frost( -6-8 ° C), fresh greens of endivia and excariol are collected from the beds. Before the establishment of the snow cover, these vegetables are removed from the root and covered in cellars or vaults. At a temperature of 3-5 ° C in a dark room, the leaves of these salads bleach, lose bitterness and can be used throughout the winter. In the second half of October they remove the leeks. Dig it with a shovel or garden pitchforks, shake the ground, cut the roots a little. Then the plants are sorted by the diameter of the legs, tied into bundles and buried in the basement in wet sand, where they will remain fresh for up to 3 months. Some truck farmers do not dig out a portion of the leeks, but leave them under the winter for the beds. In the spring it can be suitable for food.
At the end of October, before frosts, a chicory salad( vitluf) is prepared for forcing in winter. Harvest root crops with a diameter of 3-5 cm. The plants selected from the soil are put into the heap by root crops inside, and the leaves outward to ensure the outflow of nutrients from the leaves into the root crops. After 7-10 days, the leaves are cut, leaving the petioles on a cut 2-3 cm long, and are buried in a greenhouse or basement.
In November removes cauliflower in greenhouses or cellars, which, without light, forms good heads by the end of November - beginning of December, the mass of which by this time almost triples due to the outflow of nutrients from the leaves. The greenhouses uncover, harvest and cleanse them from the earth and humus. In early November, the last white cabbage of late varieties is removed for storage. For the storage of potatoes and vegetables, permanent or temporary storage facilities are used.
Permanent storage - cellars under the houses or cellars - suit, if there is no closely-fitting groundwater. The walls of the basement, if possible, are laid out with a brick or concrete. The roofs of the cellars and cellars are warmed with straw and earth or just by the earth - a layer more than the depth of the winter freezing of the soil in a given climatic zone. The storehouse must necessarily have supply and exhaust ventilation through a wooden pipe cross-section 25x25 cm. The pipe must have a visor to prevent rainfall. In the cellars and cellars of wood make racks of 50-60 cm wide or shelves. Sometimes, if there are not enough boxes, bins are built from grids raised 10-15 cm above the ground.
Temporary storage - land beads, trenches, pits - are arranged on open elevated areas protected from cold winds and from falling ground and thawedwaters, are located on the surface of the earth or in a shallow pit, covered with straw and earth or only earth. Trenches are ditches filled with potatoes and vegetables, with sand or earth interlayer or without interlayer and covered first with earth, and then with straw and earth. Pits are round or square pits. They cover them in the same way as trenches. Often on top of the pits arrange a warm-up roll, and in it - a closing laz. The sizes of temporary storage facilities depend on the quantity of products. Usually the width of the collars is 100-120 cm, trenches - 150 cm, length arbitrary. If the collar is arranged with a recess, the depth of the excavation is 20 cm, the trench is 50 cm. The width of the trench for the laying of products with interbedding with sand or earth is 70 cm. As heaters, chaff, sawdust, small shavings, straw and other materials can be used. For storage, except for basements, collars, trenches and pits, use any premises where it is possible to maintain the necessary temperature and humidity: cold, unheated dark rooms, corridors, unheated canopies, in urban apartments cold dark rooms, insulated loggias, where the temperature does not drop below -2 ° C.Sometimes onions and garlic are stored in the attics of houses without a tin roof. Before storing vegetables for winter storage, it is necessary to carefully prepare the storehouse, since it can contain spores, pathogenic bacteria that appeared during the storage of the previous crop and that could damage the new one.
The storage is cleaned of dirt, dust and well ventilated. For 2 weeks before the laying of products, the room is disinfected with bleach( 400 grams of lime for 10 liters of water, the solution is insisted 1-2 hours in a sealed container).Walls, ceilings, shelves, shelves are whitewashed with freshly lime with copper vitriol - for 10 liters of water 1.5-2 kg of lime and 10-20 g of vitriol. Beforehand, disinfect containers and inventory.
In addition, the storage can be fumigated with sulfur dioxide, burning 10-20 g of sulfur on a 1 mZ of the room, which is tightly closed for 1-2 days. To monitor the temperature and the relative humidity of air in the storehouse, a thermometer and a psychrometer should be installed. The right temperature and relative humidity are maintained by natural ventilation of the air, opening or closing the doors and the exhaust pipe.