Hypermetropia( hyperopia) - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.
Jun 27, 2018
Hypermetropia( farsightedness) is an anomaly of refraction, in which rays are collected behind the retina, and an indistinct image is formed on it.
Causes of hypermetropia
Hyperopia may be of low degree( up to +2 Dpt), medium( up to 5 dpt) and high( more than 5 dptr).
The manifestations are:
- the obvious - is associated with a constant tension of the ciliary muscle, when it does not relax not only with visual load, but also at rest. It is also called accommodation asthenopia.
- latent - is detected with medication paralysis of accommodation( mydriase).Symptoms are not observed.
- full - with it there are components explicit and hidden.
Hypermetropia occurs due to the short anterior-posterior axis of the eye. It is the norm for newborns and children under 6 years of age.they have a small eyeball, can stay at an older age. Often farsightedness up to 3 dpt nothing shows itself.
Symptoms of hypermetropia:
- if the hyperopia is not corrected for a long time, the eye "stops working".There is amblyopia( uncorrectable reduction in visual acuity) more often on one eye
- due to the constant tension of accommodation, convergence occurs( eye reduction to the median axis) when viewing objects not only near but also far away. Appears converging accommodative strabismus. When untimely treatment develops amblyopia.
- the accommodation voltage is most pronounced when working at close range. Prolonged loading leads to such symptoms as feeling of bursting, "sand" in the eyes, fast fatigue, headache, i.e.accommodative asthenopia.
Vision for farsightedness
So, the symptoms in which you should see a doctor: a deterioration in the eyesight of at least one eye, the appearance of strabismus and a feeling of rapid fatigue, pain in the eye. And the earlier the diagnosis is made and the treatment is started, the less likely the occurrence of complications.
Diagnosis of hyperopia
The diagnosis is not difficult. To do this, the following methods will be needed:
- visometry( with visual acuity determination) with correction and without it
- skiascopy( refractive examination by an indirect ophthalmoscope and rulers according to the nature of the shadow movement in the pupil area)
- refractometryin the state of cycloplegia, as with mydriasis more accurate data are obtained)
- ophthalmoscopy and examination of the fundus with the Goldman lens to identify the concomitant pathology
- ultrasound of the eye and the definition of thenot-posterior axis. Often, PSO is less than normal.
Treatment of hyperopia
The main method of treating hypermetropia is correction, which must necessarily be adequate and timely. To children of younger age with a hypermetropia more than 3 дптр appoint glasses for constant wearing for preventive maintenance of development of an amblyopia or a strabismus. At school age, correction can be canceled.
With the development of asthenopia, glasses are prescribed for permanent wearing with maximally tolerable collective lenses.
Contact correction has not found much use in the correction of hypermetropia. This is due to the fact that the glasses cause an increase in the retinal image, and the lenses do not change it. Therefore, some patients are uncomfortable in them. But with a number of advantages, contact lenses are still used in correction of hyperopia, especially with different refraction or the development of strabismus. They make the image contrast, reduce the degree of astigmatism and improve the patient's quality of life.
In recent years, orthokeratological( night) lenses are gaining popularity, which corrects hypermetropia to +3 dptr. When using them, all side effects from wearing soft contact lenses are excluded( they do not cause allergic reactions, intolerance, there is no oxygen starvation of the cornea, they are more hygienic).
Every six months or a year, it is necessary to undergo a course of treatment. If there are no complications from other parts of the eye, then enough hardware treatment. The most effective methods: Amblykor, Synoptophor, special computer programs, Amblyotrener. Suffices 5 -10 sessions. For children, programs are used in a game form.
Physiotherapeutic treatment in the treatment of hypermetropia is not the last place. Use such methods as massage of the collar zone, magnetotherapy, laser therapy.
Vitamins and eye supplements are shown 2 times a year( Okuvaite lutea, Vitrumforeyes, etc.)
At home it is recommended to watch TV in perforating glasses. They reduce the tension of accommodation. Begin with 3-4 minutes, bringing to half an hour several times a day.
Surgical treatment of hypermetropia:
- clear lens removal by phacoemulsification with IOL implantation with the required optical power,
- with farsightedness up to +10dpt possible implantation of intraocular lenses that are located between the iris and the lens. Manipulation is carried out on an outpatient basis and takes no more than 5-10 minutes.
- laser vision correction is used for correction of hypermetropia up to +6 Dpt. Types of operations: LASEK, LASIK, intraLASIK.The most modern method is using a femtosecond laser. In this case, the flap of the cornea is formed with a laser, this process is non-thermal, so side effects from the cornea are excluded. Also a very small probability of occurrence of astigmatism.
Laser vision correction
Complications of hypermetropia
To be treated it is necessary to prevent or detect complications in time. These include amblyopia, strabismus, inflammatory diseases of the eyelids, conjunctiva and the cornea are possible due to the fact that a poorly seeing person has to squint.
Prevention of hyperopia
Disease is easier to prevent than treat. Therefore, prevention is very important, especially if you have a genetic predisposition to farsightedness:
- observance of work and rest regime - it is necessary to alternate visual and physical activities and perform special gymnastics for the eyes every 30-40 minutes of continuous operation.
- adequate lighting of the workerplace( general and local)
- regular examination of the ophthalmologist, even if there are no complaints( at least once a year).
Doctor ophthalmologist Letyuk T.Z.