Formation of bushes of grapes under neukryvnoj cultures
Jun 19, 2018
Many amateur gardeners have vineyards located in the uncontaminated zone. Here it becomes possible to apply more complex and progressive formations of grape bushes. For example, transfer the plantations to a high bole.
With a high-screw culture of the grapes, due to the raised location of the skeletal parts of the bush relative to the soil surface, better conditions for lighting and airing its aerial organs are created. As a result, the photosynthetic activity of the leaf apparatus and resistance to diseases increase, the bushes suffer less from frost and frost, the care is facilitated and a higher yield of grapes is provided than on the shtambam formulations.
The main limiting factor for the use of a high-grape culture of the grapes is the negative temperature of the winter period. In an area where the average of the annual absolute minimums of temperature is lower - 16-17 ° C, grape bushes of weakly resistant varieties are sheltered. However, cultivating varieties of grapes with increased frost resistance( Violet early, Autumn pink, Vierul-59, Moldova, Suruchensky white, December, Lian, Stepnyak, Flower, Sukholiman white, Golden persistent.) Dniester pink, Bluebird, Muromets, Nakhodka, Noa, Isabella, Lydia, etc.), high-stamping culture can be used in many areas of concealed viticulture.
Thanks to the semi-green conditions of homestead plots for high-grape culture of grapes in the southern areas of covering winegrowing, European varieties are also suitable;Pearls Saba, Madeleine Anzhevin, Rkatsiteli, Saperavi, Shasla, Traminer, Kizlyar black, possessing relative frost resistance. For these varieties, it is expedient to have a high-molding formation with a reserve sleeve covered for winter.
For amateur vineyards, the following formations are recommended: a high-stitch two-four cordon, a high-stitch multi-arm with a reserve sleeve, gazebo and others.
Laying the vineyard and caring for the bushes in the year of planting for all the formulations are the same. Well-developed seedlings are used for planting. With the shredding method of forming the most suitable planting scheme is 2 x 1.5 m.
In the year of planting, we must fight with weeds, pests and diseases, conduct three or four watering, add fertilizers, install trellis and in each bush - a stake. The first tier of trellis is pulled from a double wire at the height of the stem( 1.2 m), the remaining two - every 30 cm( when the reserve sleeve is left, another layer is added at a height of 60 cm).trimming
During the formation period, special attention is paid to the quality of trimming. To create burs and sleeves, use well-matured shoots 1.5-2 m long, with a thickness of at least 6-7 mm in the middle part. To form such shoots in the second year, the young plants are cut short. The knots should be placed vertically, and if excessive growth is removed, unnecessary wounds and cuts should be avoided.
The use of inferior shoots, the gradual increase in the height of the stem lead to a prolonged delay in the beginning of fruiting.
A high-pitched bush can be removed in the usual way, which consists in the gradual( for 5-6 years) creation of the formation of specially grown annual shoots, and accelerated( for 4 years), using the stepson developed on the shoots.
Two-shoulder cordon forming. In the spring of the second year of vegetation, the most developed annual shoot is cut to 2-3 eyes, and the rest is removed. The first fragments are performed when the green shoots reach a length of 10-15 cm, the second - 40-50 cm with the leaving of one shoot, which, as it develops 4 times, is tied to a stalk cola. When the main shoot reaches a length exceeding the height of the future stem by 5-10 cm, it is minted( about a week later).All stepsons are removed, except for the two upper, opposite locations. With a length of stepsons 30-40 cm, they are tied horizontally to the wire in opposite directions. At the end of June, when the length reaches about 80 cm, they pinch to stimulate the development of stepsons of the second order. Developed stepchildren thin out, leaving 3-4 on each shoulder( every 20-25 cm).
Thus, in the second year, a stem, two shoulders are formed and create the basis for creating the horns.
In the spring of the third year, if normal stepsons of the second order developed, they form branchings on the shoulders, cutting them into 3-4 eyes. If the stepchildren were inferior, they are removed when pruning, and the horns form from the shoots of the wintering eyes. When the eyes are well swollen, they are removed on the stem and on the horns, except for the two upper ones. Stamp and shoulders are tied very carefully so that the dressing does not crash into the growing wood. With a length of shoots of 15-20 cm, excess ones break off, and the remaining ones, as they grow, are tied to the trellis.
In spring of the fourth year, on each horn, the lower shoot is cut off on the replacement knot, the upper shoot is cut to a fruit shooter with a length of 5-6 eyes( in short, for Isabella varieties, European-Amur varieties, longer for European varieties).This completes the formation. Further pruning is carried out according to the principle of the fruit link( replacement knot + fruit bearing arrow) or shortly 2-3 eyes.
If the ability to form stepsons in a variety is not high, then the derivation of this formation has its own peculiarities. Thus, during the summer of the second year of vegetation, the green shoot chosen for the stem is first tied vertically to the cola to the height of the first wire, then gently bent along the wire and tied horizontally. In the third year, the shoot is cut to the length of the sleeve, and the second sleeve is formed by the shoot that evolved from the wintering eye of the upper part of the stem from its opposite side. In the following years, horns and fruit segments form.
The multi-arm formation is different from the previous one by having 4-6 sleeves with fruit links at the ends instead of 2 cord arms. It is more suitable for areas of concealed viticulture, as it provides an easier replacement of failed sleeves.
Its distinctive feature is that on the shoot intended to remove the stem, 4 shoots for 6-8 eyes( future sleeves) are left at the level of the upper wire, on which one of the above-described methods creates fruit links. In addition, below the fork branching, 2 knots are left for possible replacement of the damaged sleeves.
Forming with reserve arm .In the spring of the second year of planting, the bushes are cut into a branch. In this year they are trying to grow two strong shoots. When the height of the stem is overgrown by shoots by 10-15 cm, they are plucked. On each shoot, the two upper stepsons are left. In the autumn one of the shoots is left on the support( the future bar), and the second( the future sleeve) is released from the support, pinned to the soil( towards the cover) and covered.
In the spring of the third year, the shoulders of the cordon form from the stepchilds on the stem, and the stepson shoots on the sleeve are cut into 3-4 eyes each. This sleeve is tied along a wire stretched at a height of 60 cm. All eyes on the stem and sleeve are dazzled to the first branches. In autumn the sleeve is covered.
In the spring of the fourth year, horns form on the shoulders of the cordon. On the sleeve again, a short pruning is carried out and 5-6 shoots are grown, which in autumn, for convenience of covering, are cut into 10-12 eyes. In the spring of the same year, at the base of the bush leave one sprout shoot.
In the spring of the fifth year on the shoulders the formation of fruit links is completed. On the sleeve in this year again left 2 bitch. The shoots are cut in 2-3 shoots( this pruning is carried out every spring after a successful wintering).This ends the formation of bushes.
If a frost damaged the undiscovered part of the bush( in any year of formation), it is cut off, the reserve sleeve is raised and tied to the cola, and the arrows( the future shoulders of the cordon) are tied in opposite directions. A new sleeve is formed from a sprout shoot, pruning it to the length of the sleeve. The lower eyes on it, except for the 2-3 upper ones, are dazzling.
Withdrawal of the form with reserve sleeve: a - the first year;b - the second year( autumn);c - the third year( spring);d - the fourth year( spring);d - the fifth year( spring)
Formation "hanging cordon". A distinctive feature is that the trellis has only one level of a single( diameter 4-5 mm) or paired( diameter 2.5 mm) wire, a bar 150-160 cm high, one or two cordon arms with laterally arranged fruit links.
The stub is attached to an individual cola, the cordon shoulders to the trellis wire. Arrows and knots to the support do not attach, they freely hang with the shoots that develop on them.
In this formation, you can also use a rigid wireless trellis, which is made of corner iron and other materials. It is a T-shape( height - 150 cm, length of the cross bar - 130-140 cm), can be represented as a group of bushes, and single bushes that fit well into the overall system of planting the site.
Form "double Geneva curtain" in two versions( a and b)
The principles of creating shrubs and shredded cordon formations are identical, except that on the shoulders of the cordon when breaking green shoots take into account the need for more frequent placement of fruit links. The formation assumes a short( 1-6 eye) pruning of the arrows.
Double Geneva curtain. If the above-mentioned T-shaped support is directed not one line along the row by its bars, but positioned perpendicular to the inter-row, and then connected by two parallel trellis wires stretched at both ends of the rungs, a support system for forming the "double Geneva curtain" will be obtained. The width of the crossbar can range from 80 cm in low-growth varieties, up to 130 cm - in vigorous.
The molding consists of a 160-180 cm height string tied to an individual support and two horizontal cordons tied to a crossbar with one or two shoulders on each, which in turn are tied to strung taped wires: one shoulder in one direction, another - in another. Shoulders of one bush extend before contact with the shoulders of neighboring bushes.
Fruit shoots with green shoots and a crop hang freely. Due to the increased load of bushes and the creation of a large stock of perennial wood, the yield can be significantly increased.
With the exception of removing and placing the cordon's shoulders, otherwise the principles of formation are similar to the formation of a "hanging cordon".
Formation of bushes on a horizontal rack. This method is also widely used in household plots.
For the second year after planting, a strong shoot is grown on the bush about 2 m, which in the spring of next year is cut to the full length of the ripened part and tied vertically on the outside of the supporting structure. If the vines are long, the upper part is laid and tied on a horizontal rack.
All eyes on the vertical part of the barrel are blinded, except for the top three. Green shoots are attached to the wire rack.
When cutting the next year on the trunk, leave 2-3 better developed vines, cut at 2-2.5 m and tie them at a distance of 1 m from each other. All eyes on the vertical part of the vines and on the bend are removed, and on the horizontal part they are thinned through 1-2 buds so that the green shoots are located on opposite sides of the vine after 20-25 cm. From these shoots in subsequent years, fruit segments are formed. The uppermost shoot on the sleeves serves to lengthen them.
In the spring of next year, every third eye is left on the vine of the continuation, and the remaining ones are removed. For the formation of fruit links, the side vines are cut to 2-3 eyes, and on the existing links the arrow is removed and a new fruit link is formed with the length of the pruning arrow for 5-10 eyes depending on the variety( or short cut).On 1 m2 of the rack should accommodate no more than 20-25 shoots.
If necessary, before the horizontal cordon is formed on the rack, you can leave 1-2 shoots for harvesting at the base of the bush and annually cut them into a fruit link. In addition, if it is necessary to "close" the vertical sides of the rack to create a gazebo, additional ones are planted between the main bushes and form them according to the type of fan or shank cordon formation with vertical and inclined growth.
"Conversation Formation" .In the spring of the second year( before bud blossoming) of the vines grown in the previous season, they choose one of the most good shoots and shortly cut into 4-5 eyes. With a length of 5-7 cm, remove all coppice( lower) and weak shoots, as well as twins. The left shoots are tied vertically.
In the spring of the third year, the most developed one-three shoots are left and trimmed by the length of the ripened part. If the length allows, then they are tied on the horizontal part of the supporting structure. In the lower part of the shoot, before the first wire( 60 cm), all the buds that have begun to germinate are removed. Above it, on a vertical tied vine, lay the tiers of the future formation: the first 3-4 shoots are left, the next 4-5 are broken, then again there are 3-4 stored and 4-5 removed. At the very end of the vine remains 2-3 shoots, one of which is for lengthening the sleeve.
After two weeks, shoots are removed from the replacement and sleeping buds. On the bush leave a total of 10-12 shoots, which during the summer tie horizontally( to the right and left, four tiers).Shoots that develop from the upper eyes are allowed vertically and bent to the ceiling of the arbor.
In the spring pruning of the fourth year, the number of vines left for formation is reduced to five( two on the first and third wires and the upper one - vertical).Each of them is cut into 12-15 eyes. On the bush develops 30-40 green shoots( underdeveloped and twins removed).
For the fifth year, the formation of the chaotic bush ends. In spring, on each of the five branches of the sleeve, two good shoots are selected, which are cut into 10-12 eyes. These vines are tied horizontally. In total, there should be 80-100 green shoots on the bush( in subsequent years there may be 150 to 200).
In the future, on each fertile shoulder, 1-2 good shoots are selected, located closer to the base. All the others are deleted. If the best is not the first, but, say, the third shoot, then all the below are cut at the base. The length of the vines depends on the variety and strength of growth. Such pruning is carried out until the growth on the fertile shoulder begins to weaken and oppress growth, then the rejuvenation is performed. Instead of this system, a short pruning is usually applied to knots on 2-3 sleeves left.
Formation for wall culture .The advantage of the vineyard culture is that it is not limited to areas where natural conditions allow the cultivation of grapes for a long time, but allows the culture to be significantly advanced to the north. Walls of buildings, especially stone or brick, accumulate a lot of solar heat per day, and at night, when the temperature decreases, they gradually give it away, so near the walls there is no such strong cooling as in other places.
When selecting a place, special attention should be paid to protecting the vine plantations from the wind and not creating a blackout from nearby walls.
Scheme of planting and formation of bushes near the walls of buildings( one of the variants)
The area to be treated with a wall culture is very small, so it is necessary to pay attention to fertilization and irrigation.
For wall culture, formations are used, somewhat different from others.
Forming a vertical cordon. This formation can have 1 or 2-3 sleeves. It is most convenient to create 2 sleeves. In this case, the bush is planted under the window and then from the developed shoots the sleeves form on the right and left of the window. Before the formation it is necessary to equip the trellis in advance, driving the crutches with holes at the outer ends into the wall and pulling the trellis wire at a distance of 80-100 cm from each other vertically( the bottom wire is 50 cm from the soil surface).For better ventilation, the trellised trellis should not be closer to the wall than 10-15 cm.
For the second year of planting, in spring, when pruning in the bush, 2 strong sprouts are left to grow trunks, which are tied up to the first and second wires of the trellis fan. With the opening of the eyelets on each stem, two eyes are left at the first wire, while the second one has -3( to form the fruit links on each side).The upper eye is designed to continue the trunk. The vine is cut above the second wire above the third eye( if the shoots are short, then they are tied only to the bottom wire).
By the autumn 2 shoots of continuation of trunks, reaching the fourth-fifth wire, and 8 shoots - on 4 from each side of the window grow.
The third year of planting. In the spring of the grown shoots, 8 knots are formed with 2-3 eyes each to create fruit links. At the height of the third and each subsequent wire, the eyes are kept for growing shoots on the fruit segments. Overload the bushes with a crop should not be.
Fourth year of planting. Spring in the trunk at the bottom and second wires form the fruit links. The shoots of the remaining tiers are also shortened to knots with 2-3 eyes to form fruit links for the next year. Fifth year of planting. Fruit links form on all tiers. In this case, in the first two tiers, the vines that have been removed are removed, and new fruit links form from the knot. Such pruning is carried out annually. Tying fruit vines horizontally on the trellis, and green shoots vertically or obliquely, you can achieve a good greening effect.
The principle of deducing a vertical cordon with one barrel is the same as in the above described method, with the only difference that instead of two, one barrel is formed.
Forming a horizontal cordon. This formation is used in the walled culture for continuous gardening, as well as for planting tall trellises( alleys) and galleries. Bushes are planted at a distance of 60-80 cm and form a different height of the stem, and in the upper part - the shoulders of the cordon. Placement of bushes at different heights allows you to completely close the supporting structure. Shrubs with different stem height are placed in a certain sequence. For example, the height of the first bush is 50 cm, the second - 160, the third - 100 cm, the next three shrubs in the same sequence, etc.
Before the second or third vegetation, one strong shoot( the future stem) is tied up vertically and the cordon shoulders with horns and fruit links in the usual ways form at the correct height.
For gardening the balcony on the second floor and above, to form a very long stem - the trunk, the vine is cut to the full length of the ripened part, all eyes except for 2-3 upper ones are removed.
The next year one of the most developed shoots is left again, all the others are removed. When the barrel reaches the desired length, form one or two cord arms and fruit links on them. Shoulders cordon, annual vines and green shoots tied to the wire support on the balcony.
The bushes are placed, retreating 1,2-1,5 m from the wall( preferably on the south side).A growing shoot( bast) is tied to a vertically stretched wire( from a stake choked near a bush to a balcony).As the stem is lengthened, it is difficult to remove the side shoots, so the wire is unhooked from the balcony railing and the bush is carefully lowered to the ground with the help of twine. After the wreckage of the excess shoots, the wire is re-tensioned and, together with it, the vine is raised in a vertical position. The main vine is tied with twine, which is tightly tied to the wire every 0.5 m and loops freely to the vine.
Do not leave side vines on the same arm for the device of arbors and on other balconies, as this inhibits the growth of the stem and leads to loosening and freezing of the vines of the arbor of the upper tier. It is better to form an additional sleeve on the same bush.