Orchitis( inflammation of the testicle) - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.
Jun 19, 2018
Orchitis is an inflammation of the testicles in a person. In its current, it can be both acute and chronic. The first one lasts for 2-4 weeks, and the second can last for more than a month.
Causes of orchitis
Orchitis usually develops against other infections that are caused by viruses and bacteria. The most common causes of inflammation of the testicle tissues are parotitis( inflammation of the parotid salivary gland), influenza, gonorrhea and typhoid. The mechanism of such a disease is not at all simple. As a result of primary infection, specific antibodies are produced in the human blood, which then perceive testicular tissue as foreign. As a result, inflammation of the parenchyma of the latter occurs.
In addition, there are other immediate factors that can lead to orchitis. Among them, one can distinguish the testicle trauma, as a result of which the infection from the external environment penetrates into the tissues of the human body. Also, serious allergic inflammation can lead to damage to the testes. It is very important to distinguish all these types of orchitis, as depending on the cause, the tactics of treatment change.
Symptoms of orchitis
The entire clinical picture of testicular inflammation is divided into local and general symptoms. As for the first, they include a sharp soreness in the scrotum, which is accompanied by her swelling and redness. The increase in symptoms of orchitis occurs very quickly and after a few hours from the debut of the disease can be observed bluish color of the scrotum and acute bursting pain.
If this stage of the disease does not provide qualified medical care, then this situation can turn into an abscess of the testicle, which is characterized by the formation of a purulent focus in its parenchyma.
In addition, during orchitis, there are serious enough common symptoms that are manifested by weakness, fatigue, increased body temperature to serious enough digits, deterioration in appetite and loss of body weight.
Orchitis is a disease that is not very treatable, so for a favorable outcome it is necessary to consult a doctor as early as possible. If there is a minimal local symptomatology, you should immediately contact a urologist who can assess the situation and prescribe the right treatment.
Diagnosis of orchitis
A huge task in diagnosing orchitis is precisely on laboratory methods of investigation. For inflammation of the testicles, it is recommended to perform a general blood test and a general urine test. In these indicators, you can find data indicating the presence of a common inflammatory disease in the body. In addition, it is advisable to carry out bakposev urine and ejaculate on nutrient media. Then there is a high probability to determine the causative agent of the disease. If the bacterium is isolated from the body, then it is mandatory to sow the latter on the sensitivity to antibiotics. Thus, it is possible to determine what drugs are best to treat a particular disease.
As for instrumental methods of research, ultrasound examination of the scrotum is often used to confirm the diagnosis of orchitis. It can sufficiently clearly show not only the pathological process in the testicle, but also to determine its stage.
uzi scrotum. There is a purulent focus in the left testicle.
Among other diagnostics used during orchitis, it is necessary to identify methods aimed at identifying the root cause of the disease.
Treatment of orchitis
Since the main cause of orchitis is usually a bacterial infection, the treatment of inflammation of the testicle, in the first place, should be directed specifically at this factor. As for antibacterial drugs that are used during orchitis, it is necessary to isolate the antibiotics of the group of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. The first relates to the preparation cefotaxime, and to the second - ciprofloxacin, these are broad-spectrum antibiotics. Before taking antibiotics, you need to make sure the diagnosis is correct!
With regard to symptomatic treatment of orchitis, it is prescribed to lower body temperature, eliminate pain and improve sperm outflow. To remove the elevated temperature, use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which include paracetamol. He is the drug of choice in the treatment of orchitis, accompanied by fever. As for the pain syndrome and improvement of sperm outflow, in this case it is necessary to use antispasmodic mixtures, which include spasmalgon, baralgin and other preparations. All these medicines can be purchased at the pharmacy without a prescription, however, for this it is necessary to consult the doctor in advance.
If the orchitis is not treated for a long time, the inflammation in the testicle parenchyma can become purulent. In such a situation it is very important to take urgent surgical measures so that the process can not spread to the bloodstream. As a rule, at this stage, the dissection of the testicles and the evacuation of purulent contents are used. In the situation when the most part of the parenchyma of the body is affected, the removal of the organ is applied, which is an extremely unfavorable outcome for the patient.
Features of diet and lifestyle in orchitis
For a long time after orchitis, patients need special care, so that there is no relapse. As for the diet, there is no need to observe some strict framework. Perhaps, it is necessary to refuse only from the use of too sharp dishes, which have a negative effect on the resolution of the inflammatory process.
As for other activities, it is necessary to note the decrease in the load on the body during the recovery period. In addition, that this will shorten the time of the disease several times, if you do not physically load the body, then the probability of getting sick with orchitis a second time decreases.
Rehabilitation after illness
If we talk about rehabilitation as such, then only patients who underwent surgery on the scrotum need it. As a rule, two types of operations are performed on this part of the body. This is the evacuation of the purulent focus of inflammation and removal of the testicle. As for the second moment, such patients, especially if they are young people, need a rather serious psychological support, which only a qualified psychologist can fully provide.
In addition, the lack of a testicle is in itself a negative emotional factor, and so today silicone prostheses of this organ are very often used. They come in different sizes, and if a man suffers an amputation in childhood, the prosthesis requires regular replacement. It should be remembered that such an artificial organ carries only an aesthetic function, while reproductive can be preserved by the second testicle.
Treatment of orchitis with folk remedies
During an inflammation of the testicle, traditional medicine recommends the use of dry heat, which is strictly contraindicated in a medical hospital. The use of heat on the spot and the inflamed part of the body, as a rule, leads to the acceleration of the formation of a purulent focus of inflammation, the treatment of which often ends with an operation. In such conditions, it is not necessary to talk about the benefits of such treatment. As for the application of local medicinal ointments, they do not exacerbate the disease, but also have no beneficial effect.
Possible complications of orchitis
As already mentioned, if the orchitis is not treated, a purulent focus is formed on the spot of the testicle. This is the first complication of testicular inflammation, which is referred to as as an abscess of .
Despite the serious pathological processes that occur at this time in the human body, the testicle abscess can be treated with preservation of sexual function, which can not be said of such a complication of orchitis as atrophy of .During the atrophy of the testicle, the parenchyma of this organ is depleted and ceases to produce the right amount of both sex hormones and spermatozoa. In addition, that in a similar situation, reproductive dysfunction occurs, lowering the level of sex hormones in the blood has a negative effect on the cardiovascular system.
Another formidable complication of orchitis is the development of secretory infertility form .During the inflammation of the testicles, the level of male sex hormones remains within normal limits, but spermatozoa completely cease to be produced. Despite the presence of ejaculation, the male's seed is inactive and it is not capable of fertilizing a woman. In this case, the scrotum leaves the impression of a completely healthy organ.
In case of inflammation of the testicle, the pathological process can also spread to its appendages. Such a disease, which is called epididymitis, has its own characteristics and requires a somewhat different treatment. Therefore, it is extremely important during orchitis to determine that fine line when it passes into epididymitis.
Prevention of inflammation of the testicles
Prevention of orchitis, primarily consists in the prevention of mumps, since in this disease, testicular inflammation occurs in almost half of the patients. To this end, a vaccine was specially developed, which is introduced to children at the age of one and six years. If for some reason this vaccination has not been performed, you should carefully monitor contacts with infected people who can transmit parotitis.
In addition, quite often the disease with orchitis does not depend on mumps, but develops against the background of another infectious process. For example, scarlet fever, pneumonia or tonsillitis can also be those provoking factors that will lead to the development of orchitis. To prevent this from happening, during any infectious inflammatory it is necessary to observe a strict bed rest, which can preserve the defenses of the body and prevent the spread of infection, including the testicles.
Local factors also play a significant role in the development of orchitis. Those people who used to have problems with the genitourinary system, suffer from orchitis more often than others. Another factor predisposing to the onset of inflammation of the testicle is poor hygiene of the external genital organs. Therefore, even before the onset of the disease, and during it, it is necessary to observe a strict hygienic regime with regard to the bed linen, which must be changed at least once a day.
Rev.the doctor the urologist, the sexologist-andrologist Plotnikov AN