Cataracts: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention
Cataract is one of the most common ophthalmic diseases and affects mostly elderly people, although nowadays it is increasingly diagnosed in young people. The causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of cataracts are of interest to many people, so we will try to understand this issue in more detail.
Types and degrees of cataracts
Modern medicine offers several classifications of cataracts at once. First of all, the congenital and acquired form is isolated. Often found the acquired form, but cataracts in newborns are rarely diagnosed.
In most cases, it does not require treatment and does not lead to severe vision problems, but sometimes difficult forms of congenital cataract are diagnosed, which requires immediate treatment.
According to this classification, the following types are distinguished:
- polar( damage to the peripheral layers of the tissue of the anterior and posterior poles of the lens)
- nuclear( turbidity of one of the nuclei of the lens of the eye)
- laminated or zonal( in the lens reveals alternating healthy tissue and affected)
- capsularon the anterior capsule of the lens)
- filmy( a turbid membrane is formed during the fusion of the anterior and posterior capsule of the lens resulting from the resorption of the lens tissueon any of the sections of the surface)
- full cataract( occurs defeat the entire lens tissue)
- At the first stage, the so-called initial, the lens still remains transparent, the pathological processes in it are just beginning. Vision at this stage, as a rule, does not yet suffer.
- The second stage is called immature cataract. At this stage, the vision of a person begins to deteriorate, the lens becomes cloudy.
- With mature cataracts, the name of which indicates the third stage of the disease, opacities occupy almost the entire zone of the lens, while the vision is significantly reduced.
- The fourth stage is an overripe cataract. For her, the characteristic process of decay of the lens fibers, the structure of the capsule becomes a pleated shape.
Causes of eye cataract
In most cases, the main reason for the appearance of cataracts is the aging of the human body - a natural process, which is virtually impossible to influence. The structure of the lens is such that over time it wears out and becomes cloudy, which is why a significant percentage of people, whose age exceeds 65 years, can diagnose this or that degree of the disease.
The natural process of cataracts can be exacerbated by additional factors:
- , the genetic susceptibility of
- to the presence of other ophthalmic diseases( myopia, glaucoma)
- by various eye injuries
- by the harmful effects of radiation, ultraviolet and microwave radiation
- by prolonged intake of certain
- medications with harmful habits( smoking, frequent usealcohol)
- poor ecology
As for the innate form, the reasons for its formation are not fully understood. Most doctors agree on the version of heredity or intrauterine infection. Symptoms of cataract
Most often a person can suspect of developing cataracts only after his vision begins to fall. However, given that the disease appears on different parts of the lens, sometimes this symptom is absent. This, for example, happens if only the periphery of the lens is affected.
Visual impairment in cataracts starts from the appearance of so-called "flies" in the eyes, which arise from the strain of vision. Objects lose their clear outline and begin to double. Because of this, it becomes difficult for a person to work with miniature objects. There are difficulties in reading, watching TV or working with a computer.
Also among the symptoms of cataracts are a distortion in the perception of colors, increased sensitivity to light. In addition, the changes are fixed in the external form of the pupil: as the disease progresses, it begins to lose color and eventually can become completely white.
How does cataract in humans look like: photo.
Only a qualified ophthalmologist can diagnose cataracts and conduct appropriate differential diagnosis with other eye diseases. The first suspicions he may appear already with a standard examination of the fundus, which, by the way, must necessarily be conducted in good light.
The gold standard of diagnosis is the conduct of biomicroscopy of the eye. A special light slit lamp is used for this procedure. Examination of the eye is carried out using a narrow light bow that gives the doctor a complete picture of the state of the eyeball and allows you to assess the condition of the eye tissues, even those that are located quite deep.
In the initial stages, cataract therapy is performed with the help of conservative methods of treatment. In most cases, use different eye drops: vice, katakrom, quinaks, vitafakol.
The only way to get rid of this pathology is surgery. To date, several types of operations are used in medical practice:
- laser surgery
- extracapsular cataract extraction
- ultrasound phacoemulsification
- intracapsular extraction
Complications due to cataract
The most common complication of the disease is secondary glaucoma. It develops due to the fact that sometimes with cataract the lens starts to increase in size and occupies a significant part of the anterior chamber of the eye.
The result is a delay in the outflow of liquid and its gradual accumulation. This leads to a strong increase in intraocular pressure and in the end result can cause even complete blindness.
To prevent the formation of glaucoma in cataracts is a very important task, since the loss of vision with such a pathology, unfortunately, is irreversible.
Sometimes complications appear and after the operation on the eyes. In addition to secondary glaucoma, in this case there may be astigmatism, bleeding in the eye, detachment of the retina. That is why, after the operation, the patient must be under the control of doctors and carefully follow all the recommendations.
Cataract prognosis and prophylaxis
Cataract prognosis, which was detected in the initial stages, is generally favorable in most cases. That is why the early diagnosis of this disease is very important. For this, it is necessary to undergo an annual checkup with an ophthalmologist. This rule is especially relevant for people over 65 years of age.
Prevention of cataract includes a list of rules, the observance of which is designed to protect the eyes from harmful external influences. That is why, all who want to avoid this disease, it is recommended to adhere to the following items:
- on sunny days must wear sunglasses that reduce the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation on the eyes
- eat foods containing antioxidants: herbs, fruits, vegetables
- quit smoking
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