• Giardiasis: symptoms in adults, treatment, photos, symptoms

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    What it is? The disease, which has three names - giardiasis, giardiasis, and giardiosis, is a protozoal invasion, a pronounced violation of the functional characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract, and a decrease in the motility of the biliary system.

    In fact, it is a parasitic infection caused by the simplest flagellar parasites - lamblia( Lamblia intestinalis), discovered by the creator of the levangook microscope at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

    Later, in 1859, the parasite "melancholy and grief," as the author called it, was studied and described by the Kharkov professor Dusan Lambl.

    Causes and causative agent of Giardiasis

    Movable forms of Giardiasis - lamblia-trophazoid parasites parasitize in the lumen of the upper part of the small intestine and in the bile duct. The shape is reminiscent of a pear with eight flagellar branches and a discoid suction cup, by means of which they are attached to the walls of the nap of the intestine. Feeding on food splittings, reproduce extremely rapidly by the method of division.
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    Already a few hours after infection, millions of lamblia cover the walls of the small intestine. The mechanical blocking of the lumblis of the walls of the small intestine leads to a violation of parietal digestion and peristaltic contractions.

    Imperceptibly there is a trauma of epithelial membranes of the intestinal wall, causing inflammatory foci and areas of microerosion. What leads to:

    1. 1) To the violation of the biliary phase of digestion( violation of the cleavage and absorption of fats), which is manifested as a result of avitaminosis - a chronic shortage of vitamins in the body;
    2. 2) To hypoglycemia, as a result of impaired absorption of monosaccharides and amino acids;
    3. 3) Hydrolysis of food proteins and fats;
    4. 4) Inflammation of secondary bacterial infections.
    When entering the large intestine, lamblias in the form of spore forms( cysts) surrounded by a protective shell come out with feces outward. Unlike lamblia dying in an open environment, cysts, under favorable circumstances( in a humid environment), are capable of retaining vital activity for more than three months, in soils - about three weeks, in dry conditions - up to a week.

    When, when infected back into the body of an adult person, the cysts again move to a mobile state, continuing their destructive activity.

    Ways of infection

    Ways of infection are various. Everyone can be infected - a child and an adult, regardless of status.

    1. 1) The water factor is the most prevalent. If there is insufficient water purification, or water from open water bodies.
    2. 2) Unweathered fruit, berries or vegetables;
    3. 3) Household factor - through dishes, linens and toys;
    4. 4) Flies and flying tanks of cysts are flies, cats and dogs, mouse representatives

    Symptoms of giardiasis in adults

    In adults, the incubation period lasts from one to four weeks. The first common symptoms of giardiasis are manifested - headaches and poor health, weight loss and eating disorder, tongue lagging, marbling whiteness of the skin of the nose, and pronounced cheilitis.

    1. 1) From the gastrointestinal tract - steatorrhea, gastroduodenitis, cholecystitis, colitis.
    2. 2) From the side of immune reactions - the manifestation of cutaneous erythema, articular diseases, nasal mucosa, inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, violation of lacrimal covers of the cornea and other manifestations of an allergic nature.
    3. 3) Neurotic manifestations - rapid loss of strength and irritability, causeless tearfulness, dizziness and heart pain, development of neuroses.
    Quite often, in infected patients giardiasis is asymptomatic, they are just carriers of infection. In young children lamblias are manifested by a decrease in enzymatic secretion and a gastroduodenal gastric disorder. Giardiasis is expressed by an acute and chronic form.

    Also read the symptoms of ascaridosis.

    Symptoms of acute form of Giardiasis

    In acute form the disease is accompanied by:

    • general fatigue and irritability.
    • discomfort in the upper and middle abdomen.
    • aching pains in the form of colic.
    • by excessive accumulation of gases.
    • essential weight loss.
    • constipation and diarrhea.
    • by psychovegetative symptoms.
    • dyspepsia - painful digestion.
    • is an infectious-allergic manifestation.

    Symptoms of the chronic form of Giardiasis

    The chronic form of the disease is observed mainly in children under seven years old. It manifests inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract and dyskinesia as a result of secondary infection. In patients, the pathology of the gatekeeper's closure function develops, as a result of which the contents from the initial segment of the small intestine return, which is the prerequisite for the formation of gastritis.

    Chronic form of giardiasis is fraught with pathological conditions of bile ducts that create conditions for bile stagnation, which leads to the penetration of intestinal bacteria into the gallbladder and bile ducts, causing inflammation and the development of cholecystitis.

    There are - constant pain syndrome, "hungry" nocturnal pains, bitterness in the mouth, poor appetite, headache.

    Possible complications of giardiasis

    The most common complication - in 95% of cases, is noted:

    1. 1) Irritable bowel syndrome( see symptoms and treatment of dysbiosis
    2. 2) Secondary form of fermentopathy due to inadequate intracellular digestion;
    3. 3) Dysbiotic abnormalities in the microflora, which are caused by the development of intestinal dyskinesia;
    4. 4) Staphylococcal bacteria and candida fungal spores are detected in the upper lumen of the small intestine, stimulating the division of lamblia-trophazoids.
    A weakened immune system is not able to prevent the rapid development of infection. The result is dystrophic changes in the small intestine.

    Diagnosis of Giardiasis

    Basic Diagnostic Techniques:

    1. 1) Analysis of the detection of cysts and trophazoids in fecal masses, and the contents of the lumen of the upper intestine of the patient, taken by sounding. Given the time factor of the incubation period in the chronic form of giardiasis, with the presence of characteristic symptoms, parasites in the feces may be absent. To confirm the diagnosis, stool analysis is repeated for two months with a weekly interval.
    2. 2) Analysis - interotest. Diagnosis is based on the ingestion of a special capsule, on a gelatin base, inside which is a thread from the capron. In the intestine, the capsule dissolves, and the thread is attacked by parasites that attach to it. Outflowed along with the feces the filament is subjected to microscopic analysis.
    3. 3) The use of biopsy is considered to be an indispensable process not only in the detection of the parasite in the intestine, but also allows to accurately diagnose the volume formations in it.
    Some specific diagnostic methods are used, in particular serological methods for the detection of antibodies to lamblia in the blood plasma:

    • , the presence of IgM antibodies is determined by the reaction of Koons - indirect immunofluorescence;
    • exclusion of lambliasis is detected by the method of enzyme immunoassay - test system Lamblium AT-strip
    • detection of lamblia antigens in feces is determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis.
    • Rapid detection of antigens in faeces is determined by the method of counter immunoelectrophoresis

    Treatment of giardiasis

    In adults, it is advisable to apply a phased course of treatment for lambliasis.

    1. The first stage. The treatment is aimed at improving enzyme activity, correction of immunological and metabolic processes. The duration of treatment for lamblia depends on the symptomatic severity and extent of the disease. An optimal diet is chosen, including a limited intake of carbohydrates. Appointed-fermentoterapiya, enterosorbents and antihistamine preparations.
    2. In the second stage. Continues - fermentotherapy, enterosorbents and antihistamines. Antiparasitic drugs - Trichapol, Furalidon and Tiberal are added.
    3. The third stage. The appointment of a diet that improves the resistance of the body, and improves bowel reduction shows the appointment of adaptogens that correct antibody responses. From the manifestations of dysbiosis and fermentopathy, it is advisable to take probiotics, prebiotics and enzyme preparations. Duration of treatment - up to three weeks.
    See also how to treat helminths in humans.

    Prevention of Giardiasis

    There is no specific, specific prevention of Giardiasis. There are only general rules that prevent any infectious intestinal disease:

    • is clean, boiled or well filtered water.
    • thoroughly washed before eating fruits and vegetables.
    • prohibition of bathing in unknown reservoirs.
    • Inadmissibility of eating food on the street.
    • suppress children's habit of gnawing everything - nails, pencils, sucking fingers, etc.
    • ensure that children do not play in dirty sand or earth.
    • in case of infection, the whole family is subject to treatment.
    Avoiding infection - will help meet basic hygiene rules.

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