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  • History of the camera

    Nine hundred years ago, lived in China, the great artist Mi Fu. And as a true artist, he worked hard and was dissatisfied with himself. On the lake, the light plays on the water, the mountains are shrouded in fog and haze, clouds glide across the sky. .. How to transfer all this to the picture? Traditional drawing, a line outlining the shape of objects, is not able to convey either the oscillating veil of fog, or the glint of ripples on the water. Mi Fu studied nature for a long time, he did a lot of calligraphy and finally joined these two principles in his painting. He began to "build" the landscape not by lines, but by points, which he put with the tip of the pen. Some points turned out to be thick and dark, others - thin and light. The artist managed to achieve that on his canvases the landscape looked like in life: through the fog there was a green of trees. And what is most interesting, he believed that his painting should be perceived only from afar, and this means: he understood the laws of mixing colors in the eyes.

    More than 800 years have passed, and the French artist Georges Sera also began to create paintings from a variety of small colored dots, they allowed him to reflect on a small canvas a huge variety of colors and shades.

    Tiny points. .. Painting created from them wonderful works of art, and science. .. television. Try to look at some, even black and white, picture in a newspaper or book through a strong magnifying glass. You will not see the image, but you will see many dots: white and completely black, lighter and darker. This is the basis of the principle of television operation - to transform each point of the image into a separate electrical impulse, the magnitude of which depends on the brightness of this point. Then the impulse is sent by the transmitter in the form of an electromagnetic wave that reaches the antenna of your TV.Here everything happens in reverse order: the electrical impulse turns into a light point on the television screen. And points of different brightness are reproduced so quickly that the viewer's eye does not notice that the image is fractional.

    "Look! Look! Look! Moscow is giving away! Every day from 24 to 0.30 am from the radio station of AISPM, images are broadcast( television) "- such an advertisement was published by the newspaper Vechernyaya Moskva in 1931.These were the first steps of Soviet television. Transfers were conducted from a small studio, located in the building of the old church on Nikolskaya street. First, portraits of notable people of the country, famous artists, as well as moving objects were shown. Of course, the image quality left much to be desired, the transmissions went without sound, and the screen size did not exceed the matchbox. The TVs were mechanical - they used rotating discs with holes, mirror systems, etc.

    Telescopes. The end of the XVIII century.

    Television emerged as the result of more than a dozen different discoveries and inventions. But the founder of the "idol of the XX century" - electronic television - is considered to be Boris Lvovich Rosing, a professor at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology. It was he who at the beginning of this century expressed the idea of ​​using an electron-beam tube to transmit images over a distance. In 1907, he demonstrated "far-sightedness", however, at a very modest distance - within the same room. The still image was transmitted using mirrors that rotated the motor. Mirrors "inspected" the object and, depending on its brightness, adjusted the signals transmitted to the receiver. At the receiver, the image was "collected" using a different mirror system.

    In 1926, was published an article by Rosing "The latest achievements in the field of vision."The degree of anticipating the possibilities of the creature is astounding. Rising wrote: "Omitting the receiving apparatuses of such a device - a telescope deep into the oceans, one can see the life and treasures that are hidden there. .. The engineer, without leaving his office, will see everything that is done in the workshops, in warehouses, at work. We will see for hundreds of miles samples of goods that we are offered. The patient, bedridden, through the instrument of this device, will enter into connection with the social life that is inaccessible to him. He will be able to see everything that is done on the streets, squares and theaters. "

    No less surprising is the foresight of the American writer Mark Twain. At the end of 1868, one of the journals printed his story about the "teleelectroscope".The hero of the story engineer Shchepansk invented the device, "doing everything that happens in the world, accessible to vision and hearing."The subscriber could connect with any country, with any city and any street on Earth, could see everything that was happening there.

    However dreams were dreams, and simplicity, reliability and compactness of modern TVs was provided by the scheme created in Tashkent by Boris Pavlovich Grabovsky. He developed Rosing's idea of ​​"electronic television" and created together with his colleagues the so-called "cathode switch on a telephoto".On a hot summer day, Grabovsky tried his transmitter in the work - a picture of a tram moving along the city appeared on a small screen. Grabovsky received a patent for his invention. There is a UNESCO diploma confirming that the world's first image transmission by distance using purely electronic equipment was held in Tashkent on July 26, 1928.

    The first sound telecast in our country was held on May 1, 1932.The viewers saw a parade and a demonstration on Red Square. Telecasts were made on the basis of filming made this day. And in 1935, the Leningrad Plant. Kozitsky began to produce the first Soviet television. By 1939, Muscovites received a gift - the first Moscow television center on Shabolovka entered into force. The studio was equipped with three cameras on mobile tripods. In stores, TVs appeared in 1940.Their happy owners could enjoy a very clear image. True, the screen was small, so a lens was often placed in front of it to enlarge the image.

    During the war, television in our country, as in other countries, did not work. But on May 7, 1945, the first trial broadcast took place. The Moscow Telecentre began its regular work in December 1945( by the way, the first in Europe).And since then, daily screens of "home cinema" light up in our homes.

    All the time the possibilities of the "blue screen" are expanding. There are TVs in which, thanks to a special electronic circuit, you can "peek" programs that go through other channels. For the most avid viewers, receivers are designed, where besides the main screen there are two auxiliary ones, smaller, so you can watch three programs at once.

    Do you want to look more closely at the actor's game or how to score a goal? Please, you can increase the middle part of the image. And if you press a special button, after a few seconds the machine will give out a copy of the liked frame.

    TV has already been released, which is able to talk with the audience. The TV itself turns off at the time set by the owner. If it happens at night, he will certainly wish in a gentle voice: "Good night."And in the morning he will wake up with the words: "Good morning!" If the viewer sits too close to the screen, the TV will say: "To keep your vision, I ask you to sit away", and if you find that there is nobody in front of the screen, he will turn off himself, saying sadly:"Now I must go out."When the owner turns on his device too loudly, the device( and not the studio announcer) will remind with reproach: "Do not forget about neighbors, reduce the sound".

    Unfortunately, a significant proportion of people, especially the elderly, suffer from various hearing defects. Especially for them, scientists have developed an electronic system that connects to the TV and automatically turns the speech into subtitles( inscriptions on the screen).

    A quick life makes a person "move," but it also makes it easier for computers, speed trains and other technology wonders to do this task. I do not have time, but I want to see the TV.In England, a video sound recording system has been created, which doubles the speed of watching TV programs. By "high-speed TV" you can in a short time to watch a multi-part film or several programs. The special device makes a distinctive voice of the characters churning at a speed of 200-300 words per minute, moving also twice as fast as usual.

    The first domestic TV KVN.

    There are giants and Lilliputians in the world of TVs. On one of the squares of Tokyo, a giant 10 meters wide and two meters tall was installed( it was used for advertising purposes).Serial pocket TV, also available in Japan, measures 19.8x8.7 centimeters and a thickness of 3.3 centimeters. It weighs 540 grams. The screen is the size of a matchbox. The TV works from the network, batteries, car battery. There are TVs and much smaller sizes. For example, 5x7 centimeters and weighing 50 grams. This TV works on liquid crystals, and the power receives from special elements. There is also a TV set that works with solar energy.

    This, of course, the possibilities of television are not exhausted. It is used for studying the depths of the sea, controlling blast furnaces, rolling shops, demonstrating surgical operations. Over 30 years ago, space television was born. In October 1959, a television signal brought people images of the reverse side of the moon. Now television programs from space have become regular.

    Everyone is interested: what will be our home TV in the future? Cable TV has been created. He has great prospects. You can prepare programs for a small audience, for example, for residents of one microdistrict."Blue Screen" will show them local news, will report on the goods in the nearest stores or sessions in theaters. Studies are being conducted in the field of stereoscopic television. The image will not only be colored, but three-dimensional and multi-angle, allowing a lateral view. There is a project to create telecasts that affect smell, taste, and touch. Special signals will be transmitted from the telecentre and introduced into the so-called comfort chair.

    Our home TV will become a very complex device. With it will be combined a video phone, an electronic clock with an encoded set of programs, a miniature computer. The TV can command a vacuum cleaner, a washing machine, a stove, maintain the set temperature and humidity in the room, he will take care of the cook, the teacher, the nurse, and possibly find new professions that we do not know yet. ..

    Take a note

    Today, parents are concerned that their children spend too much time in front of the TV, move little. That's what the original way out was found by one father from the US: he bought an exercise bike and mounted from it a drive to the dynamo, to which the TV was connected. Now the guys, if they want to watch the show, have to pedal with might and main. The inventor killed two birds with one stone: the children began to train and, in addition, watch only the most interesting programs, not everything, as before. Do not you want to try?