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  • Chronic bronchitis: symptoms in adults, treatment, causes

    There is an opinion that bronchitis is not so dangerous and easy to cure. This is not true.

    To date, bronchitis is considered the most common disease, which threatens complications and harms health. Bronchitis is of two types: acute and chronic, the forms of the disease differ according to pathogenesis, etiology and therapy.

    Chronic bronchitis is a special lesion of the bronchi characterized by an inflammatory process of the bronchioles and mucous membrane of the bronchial tree.

    Because of inflammation, hypersecretion of sputum occurs, the protective and purifying functions of the bronchi are impaired. In what case is bronchitis considered a chronic disease? If the patient continues to cough for three months throughout the year and the disease lasts more than two years.

    According to medical statistics, among patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract, 90% of people suffer from bronchitis.

    Causes of chronic bronchitis


    What leads to the development of chronic bronchitis in adults? There are many reasons that provoke this disease. An important role is played by the ecological situation and working conditions. If the inhaled air contains harmful impurities irritating the mucous membrane, then the occurrence of bronchitis is inevitable.


    Smokers, both active and passive, are exposed to nicotine, resulting in two to five times more likely to have bronchitis. Tobacco smoke reduces the resistance of the bronchi, their protective functions to external factors. To the pollution of the environment, smokers and people susceptible to allergies are most sensitive.

    Working conditions also affect the condition of the mucous membrane. Professions associated with the need to contact with pesticides, dust, soot, paint, varnish, glue are considered dangerous, and quite often lead to the development of acute and chronic bronchitis.

    Risk factors:

    • active and passive smoking;
    • industrial pollutants;
    • pathological structure of the nasal passages( curvature of the septum), impaired breathing through the nose;
    • viruses, allergens;
    • respiratory diseases;
    • non-communicable diseases: heart failure, arrhythmia, esophageal reflux, thromboembolism of the lungs.
    With constant irritation of the bronchial mucosa, production factors reduce the protective functions of the bronchi and lungs, worsening the work of the alveoli and ciliated epithelium.

    The presence of carbon monoxide, smoke, nitric acid in the air provokes diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Cigarette smoke increases the production of mucus and reduces the flow of the required amount of oxygen. As a result, mucosal hypertrophy develops, smooth muscle fibers contract, and normal airway cleansing worsens.

    Viral infections are also a risk factor. In adults, bronchitis worsens with such diseases as influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus. There is a violation of the integrity of the epithelium, bacteria are formed in the mucosa of the bronchi. Studies show that bronchitis causes pneumococci( 80%) and hemophilic rod( 20%).Respiratory diseases, acute bronchitis and pneumonia lead to the appearance of chronic bronchitis.

    Symptoms of chronic bronchitis in adults


    Chronic bronchitis in adults manifests a general weakness, chills, fever, dry cough, sweating.

    And also, among the first symptoms of bronchitis there is a dry, debilitating cough, which torments at night, then the sleep is disturbed, irritability, nervousness appears.

    With adequate treatment, dry cough becomes moist, the patient's condition is somewhat eased. If the cough does not stop within 2-3 months, there is a possibility of the appearance of chronic bronchitis.

    First the patient coughs for a long time in the morning, without giving importance to it. But the disease can progress, and the cough becomes permanent. They talk about the chronic form in the case of recurrent bronchitis for several years.

    By nature, the disease is divided into the following types:

    1. 1) Non-obstructive( simple) without manifestations of ventilation disorders;
    2. 2) Non-obstructive purulent without disturbances in ventilation;
    3. 3) Obstructive with manifestations of bronchial ventilation disorders;
    4. 4) Purulent-obstructive, characterized by purulent processes and violations of ventilation functions of the bronchi.
    On the level of bronchial involvement, the disease is divided into the following types:

    • proximal with lesion of large bronchi;
    • distal with lesion of small bronchi.
    The course of the disease can be with rare or frequent exacerbations, continuously recurrent or latent. When bronchial obstruction appears dry wheezing, wheezing, shortness of breath. It should be remembered that chronic bronchitis is a dangerous disease with possible complications. With improper treatment or untimely treatment of the patient, the doctor develops respiratory and cardiac failure, emphysema of the lungs.

    Treatment of chronic bronchitis


    Before prescribing treatment for chronic bronchitis, it is necessary to carry out diagnostics. To confirm the diagnosis, adults undergo instrumental and laboratory studies.

    Instrumental studies are subdivided into the following types:

    • bronchography;
    • bronchoscopy;
    • radiography of the lungs;
    • blood test for gas composition;
    • fluoroscopy of the lungs.
    Laboratory tests include:

    • sputum examination;
    • general blood test;
    • an expanded blood test( biochemistry).
    For correct treatment, the cause of the disease should be established. If the appearance of bronchitis is the result of contact with allergic or chemical substances, first of all it is necessary to eliminate negative factors, quit smoking, limit the impact of foci of infection. Food should be balanced, include protein foods and vitamins. For successful treatment requires a plentiful drink of up to 2-4 liters of warm liquid.

    Treatment of chronic bronchitis includes antibiotic therapy for up to ten days and coughs. As antibacterial agents prescribe antiseptics, antibiotics, phytoncides, sulfonamides.

    Effective are physiotherapeutic procedures - UHF, quartz, mustard, compresses, cans, inhalations. Non-traditional methods of treatment include acupuncture. For each patient an individual method of treatment is selected.

    People's means help to alleviate the condition of the patient. Decoctions of herbs: licorice root, althea, mother - and stepmothers, stripes, ledum are cooked in a water bath and take half a glass three times a day for 20 minutes before eating. For inhalations use garlic, onions, these plants are rich in phytoncides.

    See also, treatment of bronchitis at home.

    Prevention


    For the prevention of chronic bronchitis, first of all, the protective functions of the respiratory organs should be strengthened and overall immunity should be increased. Daily walks in the fresh air, exercise, hardening, rational nutrition will help strengthen the body.

    If the outbreak of infectious diseases begins in autumn and winter, it is necessary to lubricate the nose mucosa with oxolin ointment, take immunomodulators, and consume natural phytoncides( garlic, radish, onions).For the purpose of prophylaxis, a drug such as Bronchomunal is effective.


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