Yellow nails - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.

  • Yellow nails - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.

    Yellow nails are not only a cosmetic defect, but also an indicator of possible unhappiness in the body, as the cause of such problems with nails can be endocrine, cardiovascular and other serious disorders.

    Causes of yellow nails

    Possible causes of yellowing of nails, not associated with the disease

    1. Prolonged use of certain drugs: tetracycline antibiotics, arsenic preparations, quinoline preparations.
    2. External effects of various chemical compounds. It can be a nail polish, a nail polish remover, and household chemicals. As a rule, the negative impact of such funds affects only the open part of the nail. If you do not give your nails a "rest" without varnish, it will not lead to anything good. As a result of permanent staining the nails become brittle, weak, their surface deforms and jaundice staining appears.
    3. Exposure to ultraviolet light.
    4. Smoking. Over time, nicotine and tar contained in cigarettes accumulate in the body, causing a discoloration of the nails. Refusal of tobacco is the best way to keep good health and solve the problem of yellow nails.

    Diseases that cause yellow nails

    Diseases in which this symptom is observed and a brief description of the accompanying symptoms.

    1) Congenital nail diseases.
    2) Acquired nail diseases can be divided into three main groups:
    a) trophic nail changes associated with impaired function of various organs and systems, in particular the nervous system;
    b) Nail diseases associated with local factors( mechanical, physical, chemical, biological);
    c) Nail changes for various skin diseases.

    Congenital nail diseases

    Onychogrphosis is a congenital nail disease in which the nail plate has longitudinal and transverse striation and a clawlike shape. With onihogrifosis, the nail plate thickens( hyperonichia), becomes unusually hard, dull, dirty-yellow or brown, reaches a length of several centimeters, rises and curves to the side, resembling a claw or mutton horn.

    Acquired nail diseases

    Trophic nail changes. Among the acquired changes in nails( acquired dystrophic onychia ), an important place is occupied by lesions caused by trophic disorders in the nail matrix area( a segment of the epithelium of the nail bed under the root of the nail plate, due to the division of the cells of which the nail grows) with a temporary disruption of its function. At the same time, almost all the nails are affected quickly. Changes in nail plates are in the same stage of development, inflammatory phenomena in the region of nail ridges are absent. Affected nail plates become dull, yellowish-gray, on their surface appear transverse bands, called arc-shaped grooves Bo, and pinholes. Friability of nails, splitting in the longitudinal direction, starting usually from the free edge of the nail plate( onyorexis), lagging or detachment of the nail from the nail bed, developing gradually from the anterior margin of the nail towards the lunette( in some cases this process is associated with the development of subungual hyperkeratosis), ulceration and thickening of the nails, tuberosity of the nail plates. Rapid separation from the underlying nail plate, which then( for example, with minor trauma) disappears, is called onychomadesis.

    Dystrophic onychii can be observed in many infectious diseases( abdominal and typhus, pneumonia, malaria, scarlet fever, measles, rubella, dysentery, etc.), chronic specific infections( tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy), diseases of the nervous system( eg, neuritisvarious origin, syringomyelia, poliomyelitis, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord( late neurosyphilis)).

    Nail dystrophy is noted in Raynaud's disease, varicose veins, elephantiasis, atherosclerosis, rheumatism, diseases of the endocrine system( diffuse toxic craw, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Itzenko-Cushing's disease), with alimentary dystrophy, intoxications( occupational hazards, chronic alcoholism,), after severe operations and childbirth. They can occur with some hypovitaminosis. With pellagra, the nails become opaque, grayish-yellow in color, covered with longitudinal grooves, rarely with transverse white strips.

    Nail diseases associated with local factors are most often associated with occupational hazards. Yellowing of nails can be caused by exposure to high temperatures, but most often this symptom is a consequence of the action of chemicals. The color of the nail plate can change due to the introduction of various colorants, for example, chromium compounds.

    Nail changes for various skin diseases

    With onychomycosis( fungal nail damage), the appearance of the nails changes. They acquire a greenish or yellow color, and sometimes they can even turn dark, become thick, fade, split. Under the nail can be found traces of life of microorganisms - white and yellow coating with an unpleasant odor. Often there are depressions on the surface of the nail plate.

    Nail fungus

    Nails are often affected with psoriasis. At the same time, nail changes can occur before rashes on the skin( isolated psoriasis of the nails).Nails grow dull, turn yellow, become brittle, their free edge thickens and exfoliates from the nail bed. Often with psoriasis, small-dotted depressions appear on the nail surface resembling a thimble( so-called thimble nails);possibly the development of hemodysplastic hemorrhages, psoriatic paronychias( inflammation of the peri-omegrial roller, accompanied by reddening and edema and pain syndrome of varying intensity), onychography, softening of the nail plate.

    Psoriasis of the nails: thimbleus-shaped psoriasis, arched grooves Bo

    What tests to take when yellowing the nails

    Because of the wide variety of possible causes of yellowing of the nails, there is no universal algorithm for examining and treating such patients. The doctor during the interview and examination of the patient determines the necessary direction for further examination. Most often carried out:

    1. Sowing on onychomycosis with the definition of sensitivity to antifungal drugs.
    2. blood glucose( normal values ​​of 3.3-5.5 mmol / l, an increase in glucose indicates the likelihood of diabetes);
    3. Radiography of chest organs( with suspicion of pneumonia, tuberculosis and other pathology of the lungs).
    4. Biochemical blood test: increased cholesterol levels in atherosclerotic vascular lesions;a change in the level of bilirubin in liver pathology.
    5. Blood on RW with suspected syphilis.
    6. Blood TSG, T3, T4 for diagnosis of diseases of the thyroid gland.

    Treatment of

    If you are sure that yellowness of nails is not associated with the disease, then some folk remedies and hygiene rules can be applied to eliminate it:

    1. Compliance with sanitary and hygienic rules for manicure and pedicure. When injuring the skin of the nail roller, it is necessary to treat hydrogen peroxide, iodine solution, etc.
    2. Regular washing of hands, feet and elimination of sweating to prevent fungal lesions of the nails of the hands and feet.
    3. Refusal to use low-quality cosmetics, bright varnishes. Though opinions on this bill are ambiguous. It is known that most varnishes are produced on the basis of nitrocellulose, which, with prolonged exposure, makes the nails on the legs and hands yellow. The output is the use of the basic tool. However, it is possible that nitrocellulose will also be contained in its composition. Recently, some manufacturers of nail products include a synthetic analog with the abbreviation CAB in their cosmetics. You can look for varnishes and bases with this ingredient.
    4. For complete confidence in taking care of your natural nails, you should wear a varnish no longer than 4-5 days. Then take a short break( at least for a day), during which nourish the nails with essential oils, fat cream, yeast for nails and other means to strengthen natural nails. In general, the porous structure of the nail suggests that for healthy growth, it should be allowed to "breathe".
    5. It is possible to get rid of yellow nails on your own. To do this, apply a little lemon juice on the nails, or make a bath with sea salt.
    6. Tea tree oil - a natural antiseptic, is considered a powerful agent to combat fungus, which causes yellow spots. This oil can be mixed with a few drops of olive oil, and also use tea tree oil in combination with lavender oil( it helps in preventing skin irritation).
    7. Another popular way to treat yellowness at home: the use of apple cider vinegar. It is necessary to mix 2 cups of vinegar with 2 glasses of warm water, mix well and hold hands and toes for 15 minutes. This procedure should be done three times a day and repeated until the condition improves. Do not forget to wipe your legs and hands after the procedure.

    However, when suspected of a disease, it is important not to engage in self-medication, as yellowing of the nails can be the initial manifestation of severe pathology( jaundice of various nature, infectious diseases, psoriatic nail lesions, etc.) that require immediate medical attention and the initiation of specific treatment under medical supervision.

    To which doctor to apply if the nails are yellow

    Therapeutist, dermatologist. You may need to consult a doctor: endocrinologist, phthisiatrist, infectiologist, neurologist.

    Physician therapist Kletkina Yu. V.