Signs of mastopathy - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.
Apr 15, 2018
Every month the body of every healthy woman of childbearing age undergoes cyclic changes that occur due to the action of many hormones, the main ones of which are progesterone and estrogen. These same hormones have a direct effect on the tissues of the mammary glands. In the first phase of the menstrual cycle, usually in the first 14-15 days from the first day of menstruation, the cells of the mammary glands are actively multiplied by the action of estrogens - the so-called proliferation. In the second phase, "reigns" progesterone, which counteracts estrogen, inhibiting proliferative processes. Considering the above, it is easy to guess that in the emergence of mastopathy a key role is played by hormonal imbalance between the level of estrogens and progesterone. And more precisely, because of the excessive amount of estrogens and progesterone deficiency, there is a significant( higher than normal) proliferation of gland tissue, which eventually causes mastopathy.
The most common signs of mastopathy
Usually mastopathy manifests as aching pains of a dull character in the area of the mammary glands that appear before the onset of menstruation. This symptom is also referred to as mastodynia or mastalgia. There is also an increase in the volume of mammary glands in the second half of the cycle, their engorgement. These signs are associated with the development of edema in the connective tissue of the glands. Such symptoms can also be found in healthy women, but they are more pronounced in the presence of mastopathy.
Sometimes, with mastopathy, lymph nodes in the armpit area increase. This is an excuse to appear to a specialist for the exclusion of breast cancer, but this symptom is inherent in mastopathy.
When the diffuse form of mastopathy symptoms are brighter, some patients indicate intolerable chest pain in the second half of the menstrual cycle. In some, rare cases, there are greenish, transparent or white discharge from the nipples. And if there is such a symptom as the allocation of a drop of blood from the nipple, you need to urgently go to a specialized medical center for a detailed examination, since this is an alarm signal. In addition, it is necessary to suspect oncology if the shape of the breast or the skin over the mammary gland is changed.
You can imagine mastopathy in yourself, after self-examination of mammary glands. As a rule, it is performed on the 5th day from the beginning of menstrual bleeding, the chest is palpated with the opposite arm from the armpit and clockwise in the standing and lying positions. With the nodular form of mastopathy, one can find a single formation in the thickness of the gland. With diffuse mastopathy small seals( nodules) in the chest are palpable. If you find seals in your chest, a doctor's advice is needed immediately!
When and to which doctor to apply for the detection of signs of mastopathy
Many women take the symptoms of mastopathy for signs of premenstrual syndrome, because of what all the unpleasant sensations are written off to the physiology of a woman, not seeing anything pathological in it. Unfortunately, thus the disease is only aggravated. If there is a suspicion of mastopathy, as well as when probing in the thickness of the gland of any education, you need to urgently consult a mammalian doctor or an endocrinologist, and online consultation in this case will not work, since the examination and palpation of the breast is extremely important.
What tests to hand over for suspicion of mastopathy
For the diagnosis of mastopathy apply:
1. Survey and survey. The mammologist performs deep and superficial palpation of the glands in the supine and standing position. This is due to the fact that some nodes in the mammary glands are capable of shifting when the position of the body changes. It is important to examine the area of the nipples, and make sure that there is( or is) a pathological separable from them. Lymph nodes in the armpits, in the supraclavicular and subclavian areas, as well as palpation and examination of the area of the thyroid gland, are also felt.
2. Mammography. This is a special method of examining( x-ray) mammary glands, which is performed on the 7-10 day of the cycle. In this case, the X-ray image must be made in two different projections( oblique and straight).Thanks to mammography, you can determine the severity of pathological changes in the mammary glands, as well as learn the form of mastopathy.
3. Ultrasound examination. ultrasound is a much less dangerous method of research than mammography, and it can be performed more often. It provides an opportunity to learn the structure of the tumor in the gland. For more information in the presence of suspicions of mastopathy, this study is conducted on the 5th-10th day of the cycle.
4. Biopsy. If a doctor has a suspicion of cancer, a biopsy is needed. At the same time, using a needle, a small piece of tissue is extracted from the site of the gland, which is suspicious in terms of oncology. Further, this material is examined by a histologist under a special microscope.
5. Assay for hormones. Usually the direction for the delivery of tests is given after consultation with the endocrinologist. In this case, the level of progesterone, estrogens, and, if necessary, hormones of the adrenal and thyroid gland, is examined.
6. Consultation of the oncologist if necessary - in case of detection of fibroadenoma).
7. Ultrasound examination of pelvic organs to exclude pathology of the ovaries
8. Examination of the liver( recommended).
Video for diagnosis of breast diseases
Diffuse mastopathy is quite easy to treat if it is true to determine the cause of the pathology and to treat it with its account. Treatment of nodular mastopathy is usually surgical. Details about the causes and treatment of mastopathy in the article "Mastopathy" & gt; & gt;