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  • Types of mud

    Mud treatment is a therapeutic application of mud of various origins, as well as dirt-like substances. Healing muds are scientifically called peloids, and the science of mud treatment is pelotherapy( from the Greek pelos - "mud, clay" and therapeia - "treatment").Mud treatment has a centuries-old history. Since time immemorial, the Aesculapius of the ancient civilizations of Europe have prescribed mud treatments to their patients, the ancient Egyptians plastered the body with silt substances of the Nile, ancient Romans and Greeks used deposits of mineralized reservoirs. No less popular mud baths were in the East - with their help were treated in Ancient India and China.

    In Russia, mud therapy has become especially popular in the XIX century, since that time the mud baths of the Crimea and the Caucasus have been visited by a large number of patients and simply caring about their health.

    Until now, recipes of Tibetan healers have been preserved, which recommended rubbing sore spots with dirt.

    The therapeutic mud is formed under certain conditions, which are created by nature itself, and therefore it can be said that the earth itself gives a person health, vivacity, youth and beauty. The therapeutic mud contains many valuable substances that have a beneficial effect on the entire body.

    From the moment of entering the surface, therapeutic mud is a liquid creamy mass, which is desirable to be used immediately, as its composition often loses many medicinal substances as it evaporates. However, recently thanks to technological improvements in the drying process, dry medical muds have also been actively used.

    Different types of mud differ substantially in terms of formation conditions, starting material and chemical composition.

    Depending on the physical and chemical properties, several types of therapeutic mud are isolated: silt, sulphide, peat, sapropel and conch.

    Silt sulphide mud, the process of formation of which lasts for centuries, occurs in the form of bottom sediments of marine, coastal and continental reservoirs. The mud-forming process is closely connected with the vital activity of macro- and microorganisms, which leads to the accumulation of a variety of organic substances. Silt mud is a doughy or greasy mass of black color with the smell of a rotten egg. It consists of tiny clay particles and products of their chemical transformations, a significant amount of colloids, mineral salts of iodine, bromine, boron, zinc, copper, lithium, manganese, potassium, calcium and other organic substances of vegetable and animal origin. Microorganisms,

    using as an energy source an organic substance, in the absence of oxygen, convert sulfates to hydrogen sulphide. Entering the compound with water-soluble salts or clay iron, hydrogen sulphide forms sulphurous iron, which gives the mud a black color.

    In addition to hydrogen sulfide, silt mud contains other gases - carbon dioxide, methane, etc. Silt mud has a pronounced bactericidal property, and the higher the mineralization of the reservoir, the more inhibited the growth of pathogenic organisms.

    The colloids impart to the mud a high water-retaining capacity, due to which it has the properties of ductility, toughness and high thermal qualities.

    On drying, the black color of the raw silt mud changes to gray.

    Peat mud - marsh sediments formed as a result of long decomposition of plants, which occurs without access to air, but with the participation of microorganisms. Peat muds are formed in the event that the runoff of precipitation is difficult, which leads to swamping and overgrowing of lakes.

    The value of such dirt depends on the degree of decomposition of plant substances: the better the decomposition, the stronger the healing properties of mud. It is a dark brown or brown-gray plastic, unpleasantly smelling mass, which when compressed in a fist easily slips between the fingers. It has a high water retention ability, its humidity can reach more than 90%.The presence of sulphate salts, hydrogen sulphide and other substances in the peat composition is explained by the fact that peat absorbs both soil waters and those that occur near mineral sources - ferruginous, saline, sulfide or radioactive. Consequently, mineral substances containing in these waters are delayed and enriched by peat mass.

    Peat therapy - the use of peat for medicinal purposes is a special kind of mud treatment. Most doctors believe that treatment with peat mud is tolerated by patients more easily than sludge. The advantages of peat therapy are that peat mud is characterized by a significant content of organic substances, less thermal conductivity, greater heat capacity, higher optimum temperature. For peat treatment should be used peat high degree of decomposition, which corresponds to sanitary and hygienic requirements( heated to 42-55 ° C).

    Sapropel is brown-gray silty sediments formed on the bottom of fresh water bodies, where there is silt of organic origin. Sapropel differs from silt mud with a high water content( moisture retention capacity reaches 97%), less plasticity, a more liquid consistency. Sapropel contains a large amount of organic substances. It also includes carbohydrates, bitumens, fatty acids, amino acids, many salts and trace elements - silicon, phosphorus, potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, sodium, etc. Also in sapropel medicinal mud, antiseptic fungi, hormones andantibiotikopodobnye substances, vitamins, enzymes, etc.

    In therapeutic physiotherapy use the upper( 1-2-meter) accumulation of sapropel for applications and baths.

    Sopochnye mud - semi-liquid clayey formations that occur after congruous eruptions. This species is found, as a rule, in gas-oil-rich regions. In the formation of comparable muds, a big role belongs to bacteria that occur in the waters of oilfields and sea muds. Since the coarse dirt comes to the surface due to the great pressure in the aquifers, as they move to the surface they are enriched with various micro- and macro elements, such as manganese, strontium, lithium, barium, etc. The mud mud also contains a large amount of iodine, boronand bromine. It contains various physiological groups of microbes and traces of organic substances.

    Use mud for applications and medical baths.