Description of the causes, symptoms, effects and treatment of cough
Cough - arises as a protective reaction of the body, and also serves to protect the airways - this is one of the most common symptoms with which patients are sent to the doctor. From time to time we all cough, for example, with choking or chills. This ailment is the proper reaction of the body to irritating the respiratory tract, especially the bronchi. With the cough, the airways get rid of foreign bodies or excessive amounts of mucus.
Cough cleanses the respiratory tract
When coughing, a sudden release of air contained in the lungs occurs. As a result, air gets a lot of acceleration, which allows him to take with him particles of foreign bodies that are in the airways, or residual mucus in the bronchi. The speed that the ejected air stream acquires reaches in the bronchi about 30 m / s, and in the larynx it can vary from 50 to 120 m / s.
Types of cough
Cough can be very different: dry or wet, acute or chronic, loud or wheezing. If it is secreted from the respiratory tract as mucus, this species is called moist, otherwise dry.
If dyspnea appears, it may be a symptom of diseases such as whooping cough or asthma. When evaluating a cough, it should be determined whether it is a sharp attack or if its character is chronic.
Causes of ailment
A common cause of a cough is a cold( acute inflammation of the throat and nose), bronchitis and laryngitis. At the first stage, there is irritation in the throat, mucus and sputum. In a few days, along with the cough will be cough up discharge, which have a yellowish color. During the treatment of colds, cough is also accompanied by other symptoms, such as fever, headache and muscle pain, runny nose or hoarseness.
Viral infections are the most common infectious causes of cough in children. They affect the growth of bronchial reactivity. The delay in response to a viral infection occurs after 4 to 6 weeks.
The cause may also be inflammation of the bronchi on the background of allergic reactions. In this case, irritating dandruff appears when the bronchi fall under allergenic substances( for example, pollen of plants).Cough is a characteristic exacerbation of asthma, it is accompanied by great difficulty breathing. A strong, irritating cough causes inhalation( aspiration) of foreign bodies. In the event that a foreign body( for example, pollen) remains in the airways, it can constantly cause coughing attacks;the consequence of a foreign body in the bronchi may be the cause of pneumonia.
The cause of pneumonia is an infection, initially manifested as a dry cough with high fever, weakness, sometimes shortness of breath, then it becomes wet, with wet secretions. With inflammation of the pleura, which causes irritating effect, there may also be pain in the chest.
This ailment causes severe irritation of the respiratory tract by inhaling cigarette smoke, cold air, for example in conditioned rooms, or irritating gases. Smoking cigarettes, including passive smoking( or staying in smoky rooms), causes damage to the respiratory system and increases the risk of infection. Therefore, you should give up smoking, especially when there are children nearby. Chronic bronchitis, which is a consequence of smoking cigarettes, this leads to the so-called "smoker's cough".In this disease, there are periods of cough accompanied by mucous discharge.
Sometimes it is caused by a side effect of certain drugs( for example, when using certain medicines to treat hypertension).After changing the drug for another, the ailment recedes.
When an ailment is accompanied by secretions that contain blood, it may( but not necessarily) indicate a serious lung disease. This is an alarming signal that says you need to see a doctor immediately.
Also, some diseases of the internal organs can cause these symptoms, for example, pulmonary embolism, penetration of stomach acid into the esophagus, respiratory or heart disease.
Allocate, so-called, psychogenic appearance, it has causes of a mental nature, for example, nervousness or anxiety.
Cough that accompanies the common cold rarely leads to complications. If the inflammation is related to the larynx, children may have hoarseness, characteristic whistling and shortness of breath - it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor. If the bronchi react to certain substances, there is a danger of asthma( shortness of breath, a sense of fear).Cough with severe systemic symptoms( fever, weakness, shortness of breath) may be associated with pneumonia and bronchial inflammation. When the cause is the presence of a foreign body in the respiratory system, it must be removed by the doctor, because his stay there irritates the respiratory tract, which can cause inflammation.
How to treat the disease?
Cough - not a disease, but only a symptom of the pathology that occurs in the human ventilation system. This means that you should always treat the cause of the cough, even if it is not too burdensome, as this can lead to developing, severe illnesses, such as pneumonia. In acute infectious diseases: catarrhal diseases of the liver, respiratory tract, relief is felt when the dry cough changes wet and is accompanied by secretions.
When cough is wet( wet), drugs that promote expectoration are used. They dilute mucus and promote expectoration of bronchial mucus, which subsequently makes it easier to breathe. A drug that is considered to be active is called ambroxol. There are also herbal medicines, expectorant, which cause increased formation and secretion of mucus from the respiratory tract, which facilitates expectoration( for example, herbs of thyme or anise fruit).
Antitussives are used to treat dry cough, they are used temporarily. Contraindications to their use, is a moist form, with the release of mucus. Children are not recommended to take such medications.
When coughing, during inflammation of the respiratory tract, use drugs for symptomatic( anti-inflammatory, antipyretic effects - for example, ibuprofen, paracetamol).With more severe infections, treatment is carried out with antibiotics and bronchodilators. In bronchitis, the drugs used are used in the form of tablets, aerosols for the throat and rinse liquid.
How else can I cough? It is necessary to maintain the correct humidity in the room( humidifier, hang wet towels on the radiator).Apply inhalation, inhalation of water after 10-30 minutes from the open dishes - in boiling water, you can pre-add, for example, infusion of chamomile( be careful not to burn yourself, hot water!).With an easy cough, antitussy candies or tea with honey, as well as ordinary sweets or sweet liquids can help. When an irritating cough appears at night, relief can bring a higher position to the pillows.
When to see a doctor?
A doctor should be consulted when the ailment is accompanied by difficulty breathing when it occurs simultaneously with fever, chills, severe pain and pain when breathing, when the discharge contains blood, when the cough is not eliminated after several days of self-treatment, and also if a coughprevents sleep.
This article gives only a general idea of the problem that cough is. The data presented here are of only informative value and can not replace professional advice of a doctor. In case of health problems or any doubt, you should seek medical advice. Only medical advice, based on a patient's personal examination, medical history, and additional studies, can guarantee a safe treatment procedure that can give the desired effect.