Principles of therapy for bronchial disease
Bronchial diseases are a fairly common lesion of the respiratory system. A person who is interested in where these organs are located should consider the anatomical atlas - the figure clearly shows that the trachea divides into two main branches( the so-called bifurcation) at the level of 5-6 thoracic vertebrae.
The right and left branches enter the corresponding lobes of the lungs, where it branches, forming a bronchial tree. Human bronchi are an important part of the respiratory tract, responsible for carrying air into the lung tissue, where there is an exchange between atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide in the human body. That is why diseases( any violations in the structure and functioning of these organs) are reflected in the general mechanism of breathing - they are capable of provoking hypoxia and various complications due to insufficient intake of oxygen.
The main pathogenetic mechanisms of bronchial involvement
Bronchial diseases in most cases show a similar clinical picture, but the pathogenesis of various lesions of the bronchial tree may differ. Among the main pathological changes can be identified:
- narrowing of the bronchi, arising from the spasm of their muscle fibers. Occurs when the respiratory system is allergic. In some cases it develops with physical exertion, hyperventilation or inhalation of cold air in people with bronchial hyperreactivity syndrome. It should be noted that abnormal narrowing can manifest itself not only with direct damage to the respiratory organs, but also, for example, in case of allergic reactions to food products;
- stenosis of the bronchi - often develops with defects of the cartilaginous wall( congenital and acquired), and can also occur when compressing the respiratory tract from the outside with a tumor located nearby. In some cases, the cause of stenosis of the bronchus is the hypertrophy of its mucous membrane, at which massive folds are formed, completely covering the bronchial lumen.
- bronchial edema associated with inflammatory changes in the inner shell of the organ. This increases the secretion of the mucous layer and changes its chemical composition, which leads to the formation of a significant amount of sputum( viscous or leaving without difficulty).
The mucus in the bronchial tubes is serous in nature, but with a prolonged course of the inflammatory process it can acquire a purulent character. This sign can appear not only when there is an isolated inflammation, but also in the development of benign and malignant neoplasms of the respiratory tree - they become a mechanical obstacle to the outflow of the secretion of the respiratory tree.
Clinical picture of the disease
In bronchial diseases, symptoms may include:
- cough, which can be called one of the earliest manifestations of lesions. It has a reflex character and provides self-purification of the respiratory tract from the products of the pathological process developing in the bronchi( from blood, mucus, pus);
- sputum secretion, which is a pathological secret. Its number and nature determines the therapeutic tactics and how to cleanse the organs of mucus by prescribing appropriate medications;
- for tuberculosis, the symptoms of the lesion may not manifest or have a vivid clinical picture with dry cough, shortness of breath, chest pain and hemoptysis, general malaise, weakness, sweating;
- bronchial candidiasis is caused by yeast-like fungi and most often occurs against a weakened immune system. Quite often candidiasis of the respiratory system develops in AIDS patients. It manifests a general weakness, chills, chest pain, dry wheezing, often turns into candidal bronchopneumonia with fever and sputum, which contains a significant number of fungi of the genus Candida.
- in case of respiratory diseases in some cases are parasites. In helminthic invasions, the larvae of ascaris or other worms can be transported to the bronchi and lungs with blood flow through the capillaries, causing their reactive inflammation.
Clinical manifestations depend on the intensity of helminthic invasion, the type and stage of development of parasites. Often the presence of parasites in the respiratory system is accompanied by allergic manifestations, periodic coughing and shortness of breath.
Principles of therapy for bronchial lesions
Treatment of bronchi depends on the etiology and nature of their lesions. In inflammatory processes, they form a pathological secret. For its accelerated allocation, patients should take funds that stimulate expectoration. These include preparations of reflex action( contain thermopsis, althea, licorice).
They irritate the gastric mucosa and cause a reflex increase in the secretion of the salivary glands, as well as the glands of the bronchial mucosa. To facilitate expectoration, a warm alkaline drink is also prescribed.
Drugs of resorptive action, as well as mucolytic agents( ambroxol, bromhexine, lazolvan) and enzymatic agents are prescribed for liquefaction of sputum( changes in the chemical composition of the secretion of the bronchi) and facilitate its removal from the organs, if their insufficiency is revealed.
In cases of bronchial diseases of an allergic nature, in addition to the agents that affect the main symptoms of the disease, antihistamines are presumably prescribed, which are better administered by metered-dose inhalers. In some cases, specific hypensensibilization with appropriate allergens is used, which is combined with physiotherapeutic methods of treatment, and in case of severe disease, hormonal preparations( steroid hormones inside or in the form of inhalations) can also be prescribed.
Candidiasis of the respiratory system shows the intake of antifungal agents. In the tuberculosis process, patients take specific groups of antibiotics to which the mycobacterium tuberculosis is sensitive. Pharmacological therapy can be combined with the methods of traditional medicine, which helps reduce inflammation, speed up the cleansing of the bronchi and resume the work of their ciliated epithelium.