History of the school
Mar 17, 2018
"What is the ration of troops on the march? How many bricks do you need to build a platform of specified sizes? How many people need to transport the obelisk? How to put on a pedestal a colossal statue? How to organize a military expedition? "- these and many other questions were asked by children at examinations in Ancient Egypt. I wonder which of these questions can answer modern schoolchildren?
Already long before the beginning of our era schools began to be created in the temples. The construction of pyramids and tombs, temples and harbors, lighthouses and roads required knowledgeable and skillful people. At the beginning of the school, Egyptian students repeated the "Hymn to Nil" and "The Teachings of Amenemhat," the young men in Greece memorized excerpts from Homer's poem, students in China assiduously crammed the aphorisms and sayings of Confucius:
After learning grammar, writing, drawing, "specialization" began. It was necessary to study laws and regulations, history and geography, learn to understand the basics of technology. The program, judging by the above issues, was quite rich.
However, even then the first truants appeared. So, the teachers admonished some negligent students: "They tell me that you threw the scripture and spun in pleasure. You walk from street to street, and the smell of beer comes from you. Oh, if you only knew how wine is disgusting. Do not spend a single day in idleness, otherwise they will beat you. Be persistent in your daily work, and you will master your own business. "However, not everyone changed their knowledge of beer, more students were recruited, of course.
Medieval school. Engraving by A. Durer.
Already in the V century BC in Athens there was not a single illiterate! Training in ancient Greece at that time was conducted mainly at home, and it was only men who were engaged in it. A father or a male teacher taught the child how to handle weapons, dancing, music, oratory. Examinations were not conducted, but all kinds of competitions were popular - in studies, sports, eloquence. The training of boys and girls went together, and the last did not give discounts. To women in antiquity made very high demands. Greek women were obliged to know astronomy, mathematics, philosophy. The definition of the "puella docta" - "learned girl", which existed in Rome in the III century BC, was not considered offensive( as in later times the nickname "Blue Stocking").
Noble Romans took it as the best compliment.
And how, interestingly, did the school look like? On what, for example, did the children sit?
In Ancient Egypt, the disciples usually sat on the floor, cross-legged. They put a plank on their knees - a writing stand.
Maybe, it is to be considered her "great-grandmother" of modern desk? In ancient Greece, the children sat on low stools, but the waxed writing slips were still placed on their knees.
- Habitual for all the desk appeared about 100 years ago. Created her famous ophthalmologist and hygienist of the last century professor of the Moscow University F. F. Erisman. And she apparently got the name from the Latin word "partis" - "group", that is, a table and a bench, connected together. Erisman, concerned about my child's nearsightedness, believed that it arose from "wrong" school tables and benches. And he suggested that design( with an inclined top surface) that survived to this day.
Parto was constructed on the basis of serious anthropometric studies. It was believed that it is best when the height of the table is equal to half the height of a person. Accordingly, the desk and the seat of the desk or chair rose above the floor. The disciple was supposed to sit straight up to get the right posture. This was strictly followed by the teacher.
School. Russian miniature of the XVI century.
Research conducted in our time by scientists of different countries, showed that the same vaunted straight posture, which is sometimes required of students, is one of the most stressful and uncomfortable. It is even tiring and more harmful to sit at a low table, especially when the chair is too high and you have to lean heavily when writing. Best posture is free, with a slight inclination of the body forward. But she is able to tire.
School desk. Late XIX - early XX century.
Researchers came to the conclusion that the schoolchild during the lesson should change his position several times, and, of course, the furniture should help it. It is established, for example, that students of junior classes usually sit quite straight, but they do not last long: they are mobile, restless. High school students like to write, read, or just listen to the teacher, as if shifting the center of gravity, leaning forward and leaning on the table. It was also found out that to keep a book or notebook at the same distance from the eyes of a kid and a tenth grade student, as formerly believed, also does not follow. For first-graders it is permissible to lean over a book not less than 25-30 centimeters, for 16-year-olds this distance increases to 35-40 centimeters.
So it turns out, tables and chairs for school classes are incomparably more convenient, especially in junior classes. Moreover, current students are more concerned with different materials, instruments and instruments than with books and notebooks. The lessons of physics and chemistry take place in specially equipped classrooms, where children make independent experiments and observations, for which a horizontal surface is required.
However, today's requirements for school furniture are just at the level of space. She should not be afraid of hot water, no soap, no washing powders, no disinfection. From the shelves, where a briefcase or satchel is kept( much more spacious than the old desks), garbage should be easily removed. When furniture is moved on the floor, it should not leave traces. And most importantly, she must transfer all the "contacts" with the students. The old, familiar tree does not do well with these requirements. Therefore, it is replaced by all kinds of shock-resistant plastics and metal. The height of the chair and table will be regulated in due course, so that each student will be able to debug his "workplace" under his own growth.
Do you know?
Why do school furniture, especially the surface of the tables, hygienists recommend staining in a light green color?
This color is the least tiring for the eyes.