• Pests of cabbage and cabbage roots

    Cabbage whiting ( cabbage) is a white large butterfly( wingspan up to 6 cm).On the front wings the upper umbos are black, and the female

    on the upper side of the front wings has 2 black spots. Females lay eggs in groups( up to 200 eggs in the masonry), mainly on the underside of leaves of cabbage, radish, turnips, where caterpillars appear in 10-12 days. Adult caterpillars are yellow-green with dark specks, covered with setae and hairs, 4 cm long. Pupation after 25-30 days. Pupa is greenish-yellow with black dots, 2-2.5 cm long, turns into a butterfly after 10-20 days. The second generation, which develops in July and early August, inflicts the greatest harm. Control measures. In small areas caterpillars can be collected manually and destroyed. It is practiced to weed crops and plants that are not occupied by plants, to destroy weeds. Against the caterpillars, good results are obtained by spraying the plants with carbophos, and also with a double effect spark( 10 tablets per 10 liters of water).Cabbage flies are of two kinds - spring and summer. In appearance they look like a housefly, but the first one is lighter and smaller in size( 6-6.5 mm), the second is a yellowish-gray, 7-8 mm long. The most harmful spring cabbage fly, the flight of which occurs in early May;summer - in June-July. Flies lay eggs in groups on the root collar of cabbage in a radius of about 5 cm. After 5-10 days, white legless, without the expressed head of the larva, emerge from the eggs. They damage the root from the outside and bite inside.

    Control measures. To prevent egg laying, seedlings are sprayed twice with an interval of 7-10 days with a solution of carbophos( 60 g per 10 l of water) or a spark preparation. In the absence of chemical preparations or unwillingness to use them, the soil around the plants can be sprinkled with crushed mint, tobacco dust mixed with slaked lime or ash( 1: 1).For 1 m2 use up to 20 g of such a mixture. The easiest way to destroy eggs is to rake the soil off the root neck of the plants by 15 cm and sprinkle it in place of its fresh soil from the inter-row. Preventive measures are: removal from the site of stunts immediately after cutting the forks;cultivation of the soil for plowing;hilling cabbage;top dressing and watering of plants before hilling.

    Cabbage moth is a small butterfly with a wingspan of up to 1.7 cm. The front wings are narrow gray or black-brown, the rear wings are gray with a fringe of long cilia. In the garden comes in late May - early June. Females lay small pale yellow eggs( in one masonry 3-4) on the underside of the leaves of all cultures. The caterpillars that have emerged from them bite into a leaf and make passages( mines) in it, where there are several days, then exude and feed on the parenchyma of the leaves, leaving the skin untouched. Caterpillars spindle-shaped, green, up to 1.2 cm long, live 10-15 days, then pupate on leaves in oblong white cocoons. Control measures. Ploughland plowing;timely harvesting of crop residues on which the pest is wintering;spraying of plants with carbophos( 60 g per 10 liters of water), as well as spark preparation. The treatment is finished 30 days prior to harvest.

    Cabbage aphids are a wingless small insect( up to 2.5 mm long) with a greyish-white coating. Lives in colonies. Adult aphids and larvae feed on the juice of plants, which, as a result, become discolored, turn yellow, the leaves curl and dry up. In a year aphids give 11 - 12 generations.

    Control measures. Effective destruction of weeds, timely cleaning from the site of stumps. Near the plots with cabbage it is useful to sow carrots, dill and plant the seeds of these crops, which attract enemies of aphids. Sites populated by aphids are sprayed with carbophos( 60 g per 10 liters of water), infusion of tobacco or onion husks. Of chemicals, a spark is also used. See Cabbage moth.

    Cabbage fleas are a group of different types of fleas: wavy, light-legged, black, etc. Blocks( bugs) 2-3 mm in size, black, blue or green with metallic shine, sometimes with yellow stripes on the elytra. They hibernate in the soil and under the remains of plants. Wintering places leave at the end of April - May. Eggs are laid in the soil near the roots of early cabbage. A light-legged flea lays eggs one by one or groups on the underside of the leaf, and the larvae mend it. Young beetles appear in the middle of summer and additionally feed on different cabbage plants. Control measures. Plants are dusted with tobacco dust( preferably mixed with phosphorite flour, lime and ash).You can also use sticky ways to exterminate fleas. To do this, a canvas, greased with a sticky compound, is pulled on a wooden or metal frame, and a few times when the large number of fleas are accumulated. Of the chemical remedies used carbofos( 60 g. Per 10 liters of water) or spark double effect( 10 g per 10 liters of water).

    Cabbage scoop - a large night butterfly( wingspan - 5 cm).Fore wings are gray-brown, bordered by two dark spots, the posterior wings are dark gray. It damages not only cabbage vegetables, but also peas, tomatoes, beets and potatoes. Appear scoops in late May - early June and lay eggs on the underside of the leaves in groups of 140-150. On average, one female can lay 600-700 eggs.caterpillars appearing after 2 weeks, green, have a longitudinal yellow strip;adults - brown-brown, 4.5-4.8 cm long. They feed at night, hide at the base of plants during the day. Caterpillars live from 30 to 50 days. After eating, they go to the soil, where they pupate. Pupae reddish brown, shiny, 2-2.5 cm long. Control measures. First of all, plowing the plot for plowing, careful processing of rows, manual collection and destruction of eggs( in appearance they look like underdeveloped poppy seeds) and caterpillars. For caterpillars, the treatment of plants with Iskra-M from caterpillars( 5 ml per 5 liters of water) is fatal.

    The white whiting is similar in appearance to cabbage whiting, but smaller in size( wingspan - up to 5 cm).The front wings are white on top, the females are slightly yellowish. Flight of butterflies begins in the middle-end of April. The female lays eggs one by one( up to 150 in total) on both sides of the leaf. The development of the caterpillar lasts 2 weeks. Adult caterpillars velvety-green with a yellow strip in the middle of the back. They live for 20 days, eating leaves of cabbage and other cabbage. Pupae are greyish-green, turn into a butterfly after 10 days. The largest number of caterpillars is recorded in August. Control measures. See Cabbage whiting.