About games and toys for children
Jun 28, 2018
In the life of a child of senior preschool age, a great place is played by a game with rules. A game with rules, no less than a story, is important for the development of the child. In it, he learns to subordinate his behavior to the rules( act arbitrarily), in it develop his movements, attention, ability to concentrate and many other special abilities( depending on the nature and content of the game) that are especially important for successful schooling.
At home, an adult should stimulate along with a story game and a game with rules.
But since games with rules are always designed for several participants, an adult will have to take direct part in the game every time, act as a partner and bearer of the rules of the game.
Of course, it is not necessary to play with the child in mobile games( hide and seek, salochki, etc.), in which he already independently plays with peers in the kindergarten, in the courtyard. More comfortable at home, board games with rules. These games such as "geese", baby lotto, dominoes and more complicated - checkers, chess. We should not forget the verbal games with the rules( "Who flies?", "Tell the contrary", "Load the steamer", etc.).
When playing with a child, the adult must explain the rules to him( before the game starts, if it is new for the child) and constantly update these rules during the subsequent games. It is necessary to distinguish the child's wrong actions as a consequence of his inattention and as a consequence of the incompleteness of knowledge of the rules of the game. To test the child's knowledge, an adult can specifically make a mistake in his actions and see how the child reacts to it. Poorly mastered rules need to be clarified during the subsequent game, indicating the child's wrong actions, that is, giving him at the same time samples of control over the actions of the partner( this is very important for the further play of the child with fellow peers).It is necessary to point out to the child the mandatory rules of the game for all. Children tend to notice a violation of the rules by the partner, but allow it for themselves. In such cases, the adult should act as a truly equal partner. Indulgent attitude towards the child's mistakes or deliberate violation of the rules is a bad service for the child. And adults often think:
- Well, let him win, because he so much wants to.
Inability or unwillingness to obey the rules that are mandatory for everyone will lead to further conflicts of the child with peers in their joint game.
It often happens that an adult in a game with a child can always give in to him, providing his winnings, and then unduly advertises his success. The usual win makes for the child a very painful failure in the game( which can easily happen if he plays with a friend, with someone from honestly playing adults).This can lead to semantic barriers and the child's refusal to participate in the game, where he can assume failure. Therefore, it is better if the child immediately gets used to the idea that anyone can win or lose in the game and he is by no means an exception.
In the game with rules the child learns and general methods of regulating joint activities, ie, ways that allow in any game to choose a beginner, leading so that no one is offended.
For this, before the game, an adult can offer and use the rules of choice - the order, the lot in his specifically childish form( counters) and in other forms( stick interception, guessing, in which hand the chip, etc.).For example, if a child wants to start the game the first time, or vice versa, all the time requires it from an adult, it is advisable to use a counting wheel:
- Let's calculate who to start first.
Pay attention to whether your child knows whether he knows how to use them. A child to the senior preschool age must know at least 2-3 counters. The ability to use them is simply necessary for him in the game with peers for a fair resolution of emerging conflict situations.
Often the child, starting to "calculate", connects words counting with each other or, conversely, divides them into syllables that "fall" on the participants, as individual words. Here it is necessary to take into account that it is still difficult for the preschool child to correctly divide the phrase into words( even if he can read).The way out of this, in our opinion, is yet one - a demonstration of "counting" adults with the correct allocation of words. Let the child just remember the pattern. But generally it's good if the counters are short, with a minimum number of alliances and prepositions.
There are also cases of deliberate cheating on the part of the child. This is easy to detect, as the child begins to stretch the words towards the end of the count, already anticipating who the "last" word will get. In such cases, of course, it is necessary to convict him of "dishonesty" and propose to repay again.
In conclusion - a few remarks about the selection of the game material, the organization of the playing corner of the senior preschooler.
The play material for the senior preschooler is not too different from what he had before. And it is very difficult to force the child to part with your favorite toys. For the joint play of children the toy is no longer so important, they easily manage the very minimum of the plot toys, various subjects-substitutes. But at home the child plays one more often, therefore it is necessary to supply it with story toys for the director's games. These are cars, soldiers, small dolls with the appropriate furniture and scraps for sewing, sets of small animals, that is, everything from which you can build a whole "world".
Construction kits of different sizes are also needed;they provide classes with free design and can be used in the story game( to designate the playing space, as substitutes).
As in the age of 3-5 years, the child should be able to freely use the children's table and chairs in his room, sofa cushions, etc. "Cave" under a table covered with a tablecloth, a "rocket" of inverted chairs, takenfrom the corridor stepladder - "captain's bridge" - all this gives the game an attraction.
It is necessary to provide the child with table games of different types - lotto, dominoes, 1-2 games such as "geese", checkers, chess. Available for the child should be and materials for drawing and modeling, items for exercise games( ball, skipping rope, hoop, etc.).
In general, all materials for the game and self-employment of the child should be located so that he had the opportunity to organize an independent activity( and change one of its view to another) without unnecessary calls to an adult. Do not store game materials in different places( for example, designers - on the cabinet, cubes - in one room, dolls in the other, etc.).The child, firstly, can not find the items necessary for the realization of his plan, and secondly, the seeming convenience( everything lies in his place) will turn out to be an inconvenience for adults, since the child will always pull them with his requests( "Mom,get me a designer. .. Mom, I can not get paint. .. ", etc.).
A child of a senior preschool age can already clean toys, wash brushes after drawing, so all these things should be compactly located in an accessible place( on a low rack, in a locker).