• "My phone rang. ..", a game with a child

    After 3 years, when the child already has the opportunity to communicate freely with peers, it is necessary to provide it with means of building a joint role-playing game with them. This is very important for the child to establish a joint game with a friend or girlfriend who came to visit him, with other children in the kindergarten.

    The child already realizes that he acts in the game like someone - a mother, a doctor, etc. But it is one thing to be aware of, to be able to answer the question of an adult: "Who were you?", And another thing - to name, identify yourselfword in the very course of the game or at the beginning of it.

    The successful development of a joint game with a peer requires that the child can identify his playing role, know what role a partner has taken, be able to refer to him as a role-bearer during a game, deploy a role-playing dialogue with a partner, that is, communicate by role.

    Playing, the child can only designate his role( "Come on - I was a teacher"), can identify both roles simultaneously: both his own and his partner( "Come on, I'm a teacher, and you're a nanny").However, more often children omit this moment as a matter of course and immediately begin actions on the role, addressed to the partner( "Let's feed the children").As a result, internally seemingly attributing some roles to himself and his partner, they remain unaware: the child himself - as to whether the partner has taken the appropriate role, and his partner - as to what is required of him, what role to perform and whatthe role was taken by the initiator of the game.

    It's good if the game starts with role-playing( "Nanny, it's time for children to feed"), and not with the neutral replica mentioned above. In this case, the partner can understand what his role and role of the initiator is.

    But often, if the second role is not indicated or both are not marked, the joint play of children can turn into a complete misunderstanding: conflicts, quarrels, tears( "You are not doing everything"!) Because the actions of partners do not match each otherfriend in meaning.

    There is not always an adult nearby who will tactfully find out at the beginning of the game - who is who.

    How to put children before the need to denote, to name their own playing roles?

    You can, of course, explain to the child that before starting the game you need to agree who will be who. But the rule is immediately forgotten, besides, the child himself may not know who he is, - his role can not be determined right away, and after he tries different playing actions, he will poke toys. To remind about this already in the course of the game, is to violate its spontaneity. In addition, in the game, children often move from one role to another, not immediately realizing it.

    Another thing, if you could make a designation, naming the role of an important and necessary for the child in the very meaning of the game.

    In addition, to expand the range of role behavior and enrich the content of the game, it is important to show the child that the role always includes not only specific subject actions( the doctor listens to the patient with a phonendoscope, injects, etc.), but also communicates with other characters( roles).In other words, we need to allocate a role-playing speech for the child.

    In solving both these problems, game situations that distract the child from substantive play actions and switch it to actions by role using speech alone( games where the child is forced to conduct only role dialogue with the partner) provide invaluable assistance.

    One of these situations, on which we will dwell in detail, can be created with the help of a very simple toy, which is almost every child - an ordinary toy phone.

    Suffice it to recall the well-known poem by K. I. Chukovsky "Phone" to imagine what this game might be:

    My phone rang.

    - Who's talking?

    - The Elephant.

    - What do you want?

    - Chocolate.

    And then the crocodile rang.

    And with tears asked. ..

    And then the bear rang. ..

    First, play this poem( which children often know by heart) by roles with the child:

    - Let's play the phone. I'll be Chukosha, and you call me!

    Suggest a toy phone for the child, and instead of the second phone, take a deputy( any item that can replace the telephone receiver, a bar from a building set, a pin, etc.), designating it for the child:

    - This is my phone.

    It is not necessary to adhere to the exact text and observe the sequence of the appearance of characters. The very meaning of the telephone conversation is important - after all, the characters talking on the phone must introduce themselves to each other( in the game it looks like a designation of the role), and the range of their actions is limited solely to speech.

    You can then turn "phone conversations" into a completely independent game with the child. For her, you can use stories based on the role relationships already available in the play repertoire of the child( mother-daughter, doctor-patient, etc.):

    - Let's play the phone again, only in a different way. Here is your phone, and this is mine. Here I have a hospital, I'm calling a sick girl:

    - Hello! This is the doctor calling!

    - And come on - you answer: "Hello, doctor!"( The adult dialogue can be interlaced with such prompting replicas.)

    If the child finds it difficult to answer, tell:

    - Who is this phone?

    - Is this a sick girl? How do you feel?

    You can modify the scenes in various ways:

    - Hello! This is Dr. Aybolit! Who am I talking to?

    - Come on - you were a sick behemoth( marmoset, Barmalej, etc.).

    In this way, you can deploy a conversation between the buyer-seller, the fireman and the cat, which has a fire on the house, etc., highlighting the need for the child to identify the role( "Who is talking?", "Who am I talking to?")This designation( "This is the doctor calling"), and the very content of the conversation is structured on the actual experiences for the child, impressions( calling a taxi for a trip, talking to the store salesman while searching for a birthday present, etc.).It is clear that the specific roles in such a game can be very diverse, that is, the very form of "telephone conversation" does not in the least limit the subject of the game. A child can then himself offer such a game, assuming unexpected roles for an adult. Here the adult must show resourcefulness and find a suitable role, so that it is possible to construct a meaningful conversation.

    You can use the "telephone conversation" and to start the game, which then goes into the exchange of detailed object-play actions. In this case, at the time of "telephone conversation", roles and roles are selected and shared between the participants, further plot events are planned.

    We start playing with 4-year-old Musi. I take the phone.

    - Tink!- I say.

    Musya takes the imaginary tube:

    - Who is this?

    - This is Dr. Aybolit, - I explain. - I'm looking for my nurse. Is this a nurse?

    - No, - says Musya, - I'm a frog.

    - Ah, it's a frog that got sick, - I decide. - What's your pain?

    - No, - answers Musya. - It's not that I fell ill, but the sparrow broke the wing. Come to the ambulance.

    Then we "treat the sparrow", and then other toy animals. And Moussya still decides to become a nurse( although in her presentation so far the functions of a doctor and a nurse are not very different).

    You can include a "telephone conversation" during the course of any game. This is especially useful for children with low speech activity, which are completely absorbed in subject manipulation in the game and forget about partners.

    To stimulate the child's speech activity, it is also useful to use the game with wrist dolls b-ba-boo. These toys cause the child to be distracted from objective actions and move the game center into the plane of the role dialogue. You can pick up a few thematic sets of bi-ba-bos to play fairy tales and stories known to the child. To transfer a child to a more complex game, it is better to use puppets, whose appearance does not carry a specific role load. This allows you to expand the theme of the game, attributing any desired roles to the dolls, each time different. For example, a pair of dolls depicting a girl and an old man can be attributed to a wide variety of roles: the doctor is a patient, Santa Claus is a Snow Maiden, the seller is a buyer, Snow White is a dwarf, etc. An adult is acting for one of the dolls, and a child for another. The choice of a specific role can be offered to the child himself, and the adult will choose the corresponding additional role. It is possible that the child will immediately offer you some role, that is, he will immediately identify a couple of roles, which is very good.

    In such games with an adult, the child learns to distinguish the role, establish its correspondence to the role of the partner, broaden the range of role behavior through role-playing( role dialogue).In a separate individual game with puppets, his speech will become more active( subject actions will be accompanied by a dialogue with the doll), and in the game with a peer he will interact more successfully with him, as the designation of roles and role speech make the conditional objective actions realized by children inthe course of the game.