• What are the games with children

    Many of you probably remember how they played in childhood, in tights( catch-up), shtandr, "boyars, and we came to you", classics, "gardener", blind man's buff, hide and seek. It would seem that these are very different games. Some - with special subjects, special accompanying texts, others - without both.

    But there is something that unites these games. These are game rules, a special kind of prescriptions, defining the functions of each participant, the sequence and content of their actions. Another common feature of all these games is their collective character. In fact, who would come up with the idea of ​​playing with his own tights? Well, if this happens( if there is no company for the game), then either the player has to imagine the actions of the other participants( and act for himself and for the imaginary partners in turn - the analogue of such a game can be played by adults in chess with himself) or the game turnsin a simple exercise of any functions, working off certain skills( run, own the ball, etc.).

    According to their external characteristics, games with rules can be divided into three subgroups: mobile games( salochki, hide and seek, classics, etc.), table games( jerk, lotto, dominoes, checkers, etc.) and verbal games( "gardener "," who flies? "," spoiled phone ", etc.).However, in essence( meaning for the player himself), it is always a confrontation - successive competition of all players( as in the goose) or specially marked by the rules of the leading and the rest, opposing to him in the game participants( as in the salons, blind man).

    Games with rules can be very simple, include only one or two rules( for example, in the turtles all the rules are as follows: the lead must catch up with the runaway from him and piss them off, the one who is besieged becomes the driver).But there are also complex games, built on the whole system of rules, as if a special set of laws of the game. Such a complex game is the classics played by children from almost the whole world. In fact, not only is there a complex system for classifying classics( from a simple rectangle divided into nine cells to various complex geometric figures with cells bearing specific functions - forbidden - "fire", cells for rest from jumping - "house, etc.), the jumps themselves have a different character - jumping on one leg with moving bits, jumping on two legs, etc. In every game as it unfolds, the rules can become more complicated - first all the players go through a cycle of jumps onone leg, then bshe is moved by jumping with both feet, then - by simply overstep without jumping, etc. The complex system of rules exists in the game with a skipping rope, a rubber band...

    But you can remember very different children's games( or watch them with your children) -in the mother's daughter, in the war, in school. These games can be collective and individual, when toys replace the child of living partners( puppets replacing "pupils" in school, tin soldiers instead of living "soldiers", etc.).At the heart of such games is always the transformation of: things - into very different things, oneself - into someone else, transformation-animation( treating the doll as if it were a living being).Such games are usually called plot or creative.

    Subject games, like games with rules, can be divided into several subgroups. For example, a child can turn himself into someone( a doctor, a mother, a babu-yaga) -such games are called role-playing games. Or maybe not taking a role, managing "turned" or animated things( playing battles, controlling toy soldiers, controlling the life of a puppet family) is a director's game. In both cases, events unfolding in the game can be thought up by the child himself, and can correspond to the content of a fairy tale or story. In the latter case, we will deal with a drama game( you can draw an analogy here with the play, but this is a play the child plays for himself).

    It would seem that in these games there are no formalized rules, the child is completely free in his transformations, and this activity has nothing to do with playing with rules. But if we look more closely at games with rules, in many we will find the elements of the plot( i.e., the same transformations as in the story game), especially this is evident in children's games with rules where the actions of participants are accompanied by a special text( "geeseand wolves "," boyars, and we came to you ").Sometimes such elements are retained only in the name of the game( "cat and mouse") or in special objects for the game( in chess, for example, the figures have a plot character, and the game itself simulates the battle of two armies).These similarities support the assumption that story play and game with rules have common historical roots.

    The common feature of the game is that this voluntarily and freely chosen activity, which gives pleasure, and has no utilitarian purposes, is an unproductive activity. In addition, it is a special kind of modeling activity that reveals a connection with the real world( recreating real activity or relationships in it), explicit( story play) or hidden( game with rules).