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  • Raising a child of an early age

    The upbringing of children in our country is given attention.

    to him the qualities that should be peculiar to a citizen of a communist society.

    Understanding its responsibility to the people, before the fatherland, parents are striving to become conscious educators of their children. But we must remember that education is not a mechanical craft that always allows the use of the same methods and methods. For proper education, the experience and advice of others is not enough, no matter how good they are. The right way is to be able to find your own thoughtful attitude, persistent thinking. Raising children is a big and complex affair. And you need to start it from the first days of the child's life. Do the mothers know that the nature of the child is formed very early? Even the very first impressions leave a definite trace in the child's brain. The conditions in which the child lives, the relationships that develop between his educators - everything finds in it a response, is perceived and affects the character.

    The main principles of education, - said the wonderful Soviet teacher A. S. Makaranka, - are pawned up to five years, and what you did before five years is ninety percent of the entire educational process, and then the upbringing of a person, processing continues, butin general, you start eating berries, and the flowers you looked after were up to five years old.

    The first three years of life - the time of the fastest pace in the child's physical and neuropsychological development. The growth of a newborn( about 50 centimeters) a year increases by half, reaching 75 centimeters. By the end of the year the child already knows how to crawl, sit, stand, walk. At an early age, he gets a lot of knowledge about the world around him, learns to eat, undress, wash, play different games. In the first years of his life he mastered speech. Finally, the first three years is the most tender age, requiring parents to vigilantly take care of the child's health, knowledge of the means of protecting the child's body from the adverse effects of the external environment and diseases.

    To properly care for a child, skillfully educate him from the first day of life, parents, especially mothers, need to know a lot and be able to.

    Education only gives tangible results when the whole life of the child from the first day is organized correctly.

    The mother must establish a strict and correct mode of the child's day. If he gets used to a certain routine, he will not demand food at the wrong time, he will not suddenly sleep, and these habits are the initial elements of the emerging character. If the mode is not installed and know: the first and the main mistake in the upbringing of the child is allowed. And do not be surprised if, while awake, the child whines, and at the hours when he is supposed to sleep, he is awake. Children, accustomed to the regime, grow up cheerful, calm, and gain weight. But how to ensure that the child sleeps and plays at certain hours? To do this, you need to know a few rules. The first rule: that a child sleeps well at night, it is necessary that during the day he has time for wakefulness. Never shake a child, carry it in your arms, sit next to it, etc., as a result of this, children develop a harmful habit of falling asleep only in someone's presence, otherwise the children are capricious, crying, their sleep becomes restless, they often wake up.

    Fresh cool air is the best way to quickly fall asleep. In the street, children sleep long and hard. Staying in the fresh air not only causes a deep and deep sleep, but also serves as a good means of preventing various diseases. Children who are accustomed to sleeping in the summer on the street must continue this regime in the winter.

    It should be remembered that sleep will be strong only if it is preceded by active wakefulness. Therefore, for children from 2 to 9 months, the following order is recommended: sleep, food, play, and then again sleep until the next feeding. A well-rested child will eat with an appetite, but a well-fed one will long and play calmly.

    But we must not forget in time to change the regime of the day and sleep for the child according to his age, since if to detain children on a regime of younger age, they do not sleep well. Often happens, that laid in a bed the child longly turns, worries. The reason for this can be not only light, noise, loud conversations around, but also the impressions of the day gone by. Therefore, if there are several children in the family, we must ensure that before going to bed they do not start up noisy games, quarrels, you can not tell the children of "terrible" stories.

    There are children who have nervous system peculiarities that are difficult for them from a healthy state-go to sleep and

    on the contrary. Before going to bed, they are excited for a long time, the kids are capricious, older children spin in bed, jump up, laugh unnaturally loud. The placement of such children should be treated with particular care, making it easier for them to fall asleep. It is necessary to create a child's installation for sleeping. The small children are told in a low and calm voice: "Vovochka will sleep now, bye, bye."Older children are given disciplinary instructions: to collect toys before bed, to undress themselves, to fold things neatly. This contributes to a quiet sleep.

    Mode is determined not only by the age of the child, but also by the state of his health, individual characteristics. Children who have had illnesses, children with an easily depleted nervous system need a shortened waking time and an extended sleep.

    How to organize wakefulness?

    The length of the intervals between sleeping in the child increases gradually: the smaller the child, the shorter they are and the more often they are interspersed with sleep. A three-month-old child can stay awake without fatigue 1-1.5 hours, a child of 9-10 months is 2.5 hours, a half-year-old is already 3.5-4 hours, and a three-year-6 hours.

    It is quite easy to organize a game for a child who can walk, talk, look at pictures, build a house from cubes. But how to take the baby of the first months of life in those 1, 5-2 hours, which are assigned to him for wakefulness?

    The newly born child is completely helpless. The first thing he learned by the end of the first month of life is to look at the surrounding objects and hear the sounds around him. Therefore, over the baby's bed, it is necessary to hang bright large toys from now on, to show them to him so that he follows them with a look, talk with him, hum them simple songs. The family should not forget that from the first months of life it is necessary to teach the child to play and engage not only with adults, but also independently. That the child was cheerful and normally developed, it is necessary to give it an opportunity to move, to be engaged in a toy. To do this, and put on children from the age of two months at the time of cheerfulness pants-stockings( sliders). To make it easier for the child to move, it is recommended at this time to remove the mattress from the bed and put plywood or some rug covered with oilcloth on the bed;then the child is more comfortable to move and change position, lie on his back, side, stomach, climb, and later walk along the barrier of the bed.

    We should dwell on those mistakes that are allowed in the family with the development of the child's movements in the first year of his life. Most often you have to face the fact that a child 3-4 months already trying to sit in bed, overlaid with pillows. This can lead to curvature of the spine and compression of the chest. It is also harmful for the child of the first months of life to put him on for a long time on his feet. Much more important for the development of movements, so that the child crawls and walks more than sitting and standing.

    An important part of the regime is the organization of feeding the child. The digestive apparatus of the infant is not yet adapted to digest and assimilate any food. To new kinds of food it should be accustomed gradually. With malnutrition, severe illness can occur, which usually affects the development of the child's body.

    There are cases when children are capricious, refuse to eat nutritious and well-cooked food. Usually it comes from chaotic feeding. The child, who is accustomed to eating at certain hours, at the time of feeding, digestive and salivary glands work more intensively, and appetite increases. It has long been known that food, eaten with appetite, is well absorbed by the body, contributes to an increase in appetite. Appetite awakens not only at the sight of food, but also when talking about it.

    Often, instead of causing the child pleasant memories and ideas about food( "What we have today, the porridge will be delicious, and then kissel, red, sweet"), they try to feed him as unobtrusively as possible.

    Often the child resists and fusses when he is forcibly fed, but with what pleasure he eats himself, having got a spoon in his hands. Therefore, it is important to develop a number of active movements in the first year of life: by 5 months, the ability to hold a bottle of yogurt in your hands, remove food from your spoon with your lips, drink a cup from 9-10 months, eat a crust of bread. If from 1 year 2 months to teach the child to eat a spoonful of thick food( mashed potatoes, porridge), then by 1 year 6 months he will learn to already own a spoon and eat independently.

    It is necessary to take care of the child's active participation in the fees for walking, washing, undressing. Gradually, tasks for the child need to be complicated.

    It is known that children show their desire for independence rather early. They want to wash themselves, eat, put on their shoes. Do not over-patronize the baby, warn his every desire. Not helping, and doing everything for the child, eliminating even the small difficulties that he could quite overcome, parents interfere with the development of strong-willed qualities.

    The development of a child's speech begins in the first year of life, long before he pronounces the words. The first sounds( "walking" from 3 to 3, 5 months and babbling with 7-8 months) are usually caused by an affectionate conversation between an adult and a child.

    By the end of the first year the child begins to understand the speech of adults and to pronounce the first simple words, by the age of 2 they are gradually being replaced by more complex words. Adults should monitor the correctness of their speech, as well as the speech of the child, correct it, if he improperly utters the words.

    Children of 1,5-3 years have many questions: why?what is it?which one? All these questions must always be answered. Children of this age like to listen to stories, fairy tales, poems, songs. The development of speech in children is helped by visual impressions. Books for them must be bought with bright, large pictures, large text. Pictures should be viewed together with the child, explaining them and answering questions. The text should be read without haste, with an expression. Do not read a few books in a row. A child of 2-3 years can learn a poem or a simple song. With the child, you must always talk, explain everything he sees, take him to a separate corner, put a table, a stool or a chair, a box of toys, hang pictures, a shelf for. ....

    Children should be taught to handle things carefully, to keep cleanliness in the room, but at the same time it is necessary to satisfy the needs of the child in the game, to give him the opportunity to build, reinvent, implement, his plans.

    In the game of children there are the first shoots of collectivism and friendship. The child early begins to feel the need for comrades. If he enters the kindergarten, he is usually immediately interested in collective games. If the child grows alone, care must be taken that he has comrades, otherwise he will become unsociable, shy or, on the contrary, selfish, cheeky. Sometimes adults think the game is an empty fun, they dismiss it scornfully. Badly, and those parents who interfere in the game, trying to do everything for children. In such cases, the child ceases to think creatively, he develops uncertainty in his abilities, lack of will.

    The game delivers great joy, increases vitality, strengthens the nervous system. Jumping, running, sporting, children master the movements necessary for their physical development. No wonder some doctors call the game "mental vitamin".

    The child needs encouragement, praise, affection. Calm, gentle treatment from the child can achieve a lot. The main task of adults is to raise the child's skills of correct behavior.

    Good skills are easier and better fixed, if you pay attention to the child is not on the negative, but on the positive aspects of his behavior. For example: "How well and neatly you removed the toys," etc. At the same time, you can not caress the children too much, because from this they become capricious and effeminate.

    If the family is not one, but two or three children, then adults should treat everyone equally.

    The child must learn to calmly fulfill the requirements of adults, he must know what can and should not be done. To achieve this, you need to clear away those items that the child can not take. If the child requires them, it is necessary to calmly, but with a strict expression of a person to say to him "it is impossible".In the future, no longer need to remove the object, but just one word "impossible."But one should never say "impossible" very often, for any reason, as children get used to this word and it loses its power. Every prohibition must be justified. You can not change your mind( today forbid, and tomorrow resolve).

    Children easily imitate what they see in the family. If the adults are sharp, coarse, if they are unrestrained in the treatment of the child, then the children take all this. All family members should have a single line of behavior towards the child.

    Prohibition should be made in strict and categorical form, you can not enter into a dispute with the child. In addition to prohibition, you need to use censure. A good way is to distract a child from something forbidden. Helping the child to do something interesting, the adult thereby easily switches it and distracts from the pranks. It is absolutely unacceptable to intimidate children and even more to beat them. All this depresses the child, causes fear and excites his nervous system.

    But at the same time, parents should also listen to the protests of the child, as they are often justified.

    Many children in our country are brought up in the manger and kindergartens. The collective very positively influences the formation of positive traits of character, because from the early childhood a habit is created to reckon with comrades, to help each other, to observe the regime of the day. Collective games give a lot of room for imagination, train the mind, the will of the child, develop his abilities. The game quietly turns into useful lessons: children are happy to water the flowers, bathe the dolls, sew them dresses.

    So, raising children is an important and responsible business. However, the desire to properly educate a child is not enough - you need knowledge, patience, perseverance. And first of all we must remember that the upbringing of the child should begin from the first days and that early childhood plays a big role in the further development of man.

    To educate a child from early childhood on the strength of each father and mother;where it is more difficult to eliminate entrenched shortcomings in character.