Aloe tree-like properties
Jun 23, 2018
Aloe arborescens Mill belongs to the family of lily( Liliaceae).In Russia it is widely distributed in the indoor culture under the local folk names "century", "doctor", "rannik", aloe, etc.
The genus of aloe embraces more than 170 species. All its species are evergreen perennial plants with succulent leaves( succulents).
In places of natural growth and in the aloe tree culture, the tree is represented by several species: from trees and large bushes to half-shrubs with low dense branching. Garden forms cultivated under conditions of indoor culture are distinguished by smaller sizes of vegetative and reproductive organs.
The homeland of aloe - tropical and subtropical countries. The main center for the distribution of aloe is South Africa, where about 60% of species of this genus are concentrated. A number of species are also found in the flora of East Africa and the nearby islands( Madagascar, Socotra, etc.).
For cultivation in the subtropical zone the most promising was the aloe tree species( Aloe arborescens Mill).Aloe vera, cultivated in the subtropics for industrial use, is a tree with a non-branching stem reaching 3-4 m in height. Its leaves are dark green, xiphoidal, gradually tapering, pointed at the tip, 25-40 cm in length, 4-5 cm wide at the base, fleshy at the edges with hooked light spines 3-5 mm long, on the upper side grooved, withlower - convex.
Cvetonos plant usually not branched, brush conical-cylindrical, multicolor, bracts have a length of 15-18 mm, broadly ovoid, short-pointed;pedicel 25 mm long, perianth slightly compressed at base, broadened to throat, 30-35 mm long;the petals are free, the outer ones are orange, the inner ones are lighter, at the end are greenish, the anthers are shorter than the pistil, the column of which somewhat protrudes from the perianth.
In the subtropical aloe environment, the tree blossoms rarely. In a room culture almost does not bloom, does not form fruit. This species of aloe is very easily and quickly propagated by cuttings, which are taken from the lateral shoots of adult plants, growing in large numbers on the lower part of the stems.
The frost resistance of aloe vera is low( usually within 0.5-1 ° C).In some cases, the most hardened plants could withstand short freezes up to -3 ° C.
The requirements of aloe tree to the soil are determined by the peculiarity of its root system, which is superficially located, and the content of up to 40% calcium oxide in its sol. Therefore, the most suitable for aloe tree are medium and light soils of weakly acid and neutral reaction with a rich content of calcium.
Experience has shown that in the subtropical zone the aloe tree culture can be mastered by combined use of closed and open ground.
The main method of mass reproduction of aloe tree in subtropical conditions is cuttings of lateral shoots.
Cut shoots before rooting leave for 2-3 hours in air, so that the surface of the cut is slightly dried, which reduces the risk of rotting cut shoots. Planting cuttings for rooting produce in greenhouses or soil ridges with skeletal shading.
Rooting of the cuttings is equally good in both sand and loose garden soil. The best time for propagation of aloe vera tree is the period from July to October inclusive, when full rooting of the cuttings takes no more than one month. When aloen is cuttings in greenhouses, up to 500 cuttings are placed under one greenhouse frame;in the soil beds, the feeding area can be doubled, especially at earlier periods of cuttings propagation. Glasses of greenhouse frames, where the rooting of the cuttings takes place, are covered with lime or chalk, and in the hottest months shade with additional plant materials.
Care of the cuttings is to periodically spray them and remove the weeds. After rooting cuttings in greenhouses and beds they are transplanted into the well-prepared soil of other hotbeds, where they are grown and preserved during the winter period.
For the first year of the plantation crop, cuttings seedlings 12-15 cm in height are used. For growing such seedlings it is required from one to one and a half years, counting from the period of laying of the cuttings for rooting. Planting aloe tree plants from the premises into the open ground should be performed after the danger of frost passes, when the soil warms up sufficiently.
In the main soil cultivation, the following norms for the application of organic and mineral fertilizers are observed: manure 40-60 tons, nitrogen and potassium 120 kg, phosphorus 100 kg per 1 ha. In addition to the main fertilizer, in the summer, additional mineral nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizing is applied, 100 kg per 1 ha.
Placement of plants in the field of ordinary. The rows, depending on the type of seedlings, are kept within 70-100 cm and in rows - within 30-100 cm. In the spring, when planting seedlings in the field, watering is performed, repeating it 2-3 times depending on the weather conditions.
In the summer, aloe tree plantations are subjected to a 3-5-fold cultivation with simultaneous weeding.
Harvesting of fresh aloe vera leaves is performed from the end of October to the middle of November, that is, during the period when plants are transferred to the winter for greenhouses. Collect low and medium well developed leaves not less than 18 cm long, leaving apical rosettes of young leaves( for further development of plants next year).
To obtain a sabur( a preparation having a laxative property), the leaves of aloe tree are cut off at the very base( at the widest point).Cut off leaves are placed vertically in the receiving vessels, above the bottom of which are installed special grids. After 30 minutes, the bulk of the juice flows from the leaves, passes through the net to the bottom of the vessel, from which it merges and filters out. The remainder of the active substances is isolated from the leaves by pressing. From the aloe juice of a tree, by evaporation, a sabur is obtained.
Collection of leaves of aloe tree, intended for the production of biostimulating drugs, is done differently. Well developed leaves are separated from the plants along with the vagina in order to avoid the loss of juice from them. The leaves are slightly incised from the side at the points where they leave the stems, after which they easily separate from the stem.
The transportation of leaves to places of industrial production of preparations is carried out in plywood boxes in the shortest possible time( by airmail).
Chemical composition of
Aloe types suitable for use in medicine are characterized by the presence of bitter tastes of complex glycoside compounds, which are derivatives of hydroxyanthraquinones and anthronols. These compounds are abbreviated as anthroglycosides.
From the juice of the leaves of aloe tree, as already mentioned, the Sabur is obtained. This is a dry juice evaporated, used in medical practice as a laxative, hemostatic and astringent. Sabur was well known in the first centuries of our era to doctors Dioscorides and Pliny. Later it was widely used both in medicine and in veterinary practice.
The industrial production of sabur is concentrated mainly in South Africa, where the Cape Sabur is produced, and also in the West Indies( the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao off the northern coast of South America), where Barbados and Curasawa varieties of sabur are produced.
The most important component of the sabur is aloin, first isolated in crystalline form from the Barbados sabur in 1851. In 1856, aloin was obtained from the Socotrin sabur( sokaloin);From Zanzibar Sabur was isolated zanaloin, and from kurassava sabur - kuraloin.
In addition to aloin, in the Barbados sabur, an isomer of aloin, i.e., isobarbaloin, is easily oxidized.and acquires a red color. The second companion of aloin is the non-crystallizing B-aloin, which occurs in different varieties of sabur. The third satellite is a crystalline substance, which is defined as phenol and is called aloesol. Aloesol is also found in Barbados, Kurassav and other species of sabur.
In addition to the above-mentioned components, the sabur contains a number of other substances, for example emodin. In various varieties of sabur, resin is found, and its amount depends on the plant species. The resin is not pharmacologically active.
Sabur, obtained in our subtropics from aloe tree, in its physical properties and quality is not inferior to the best imported varieties. It has a light-colored appearance and contains 79.5% of active substances. The yield of Sabur is 0.19% of fresh leaves( fresh leaves contain 96% moisture).Sabur from pressed juice is used for medical purposes only after its purification.
The healing properties of aloe are known since ancient times. Particularly widely used drugs from aloe in folk medicine. They are used for burns, long-term healing ulcers and wounds, and as an appetizing remedy for exhaustion and reduced appetite.
In medicine, aloe is widely used as a laxative. The active substances of the aloe vera release effect are glycosides( aloins) of crystalline and amorphous type. Depending on the dose( 0.1-0.3 g), the sabur can act as a toning and light laxative with an abundant liquid stool, and also cause a strong peristalsis. X-ray observations have shown that the effect of the drug develops mainly in the large intestine. After taking the sabur in 8-12 h, a semi-liquid emptying of the intestine without pain and without subsequent inclinations to constipation occurs. This circumstance makes aloe a preferred means for fighting chronic constipation. However, the flow of blood to the organs of the abdominal cavity, observed after the intake of aloe, makes it contraindicated in hemorrhoids, uterine bleeding and requires great care when used in pregnant women.
In medical practice, in addition, introduced a therapeutic drug from the leaves of aloe for tissue therapy( a method of treatment with biogenic stimulants).In tissue therapy, aloe is prescribed in the form of an extract extracted from ballast substances( in ampoules), which is injected under the skin.
The most widely used method of tissue therapy with aloe is used in the treatment of eye diseases, among which mention conjunctivitis, corneal diseases, diseases of the vascular tract of the eye and some others.
Tissue therapy with aloe preparations has also found application in various internal diseases( bronchial asthma, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer, etc.).
At one time in the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants( VILAR) in Moscow, juice from fresh aloe leaves was obtained. Experimental data showed that aloe juice has bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties in relation to various groups of microbes: staphylococci, streptococci, E. coli, diphtheria bacilli, dysentery and typhoid bacillus.
The clinical trial of juice performed in a number of medical institutions in Moscow( general surgery clinic of the II Moscow State Medical Institute) showed its effectiveness in the treatment of burns, trophic ulcers, osteomyelitis with an open purulent focus, abscesses, phlegmon, mastitis. The use of the drug leads to a rapid cleansing of ulcers and purulent wounds. The wound surface is actively filled with fresh granulations and epithelialized.
As a wound healing agent, aloe juice is used in the form of baths, washes and moist dressings.
In the wrinkled shell of aloe leaves, located immediately beneath the surface of the skin on the inside, outside the phloem( the tissue of the plant, which serves to conduct organic substances, which are synthesized mainly in leaves), along the veins stretch giant aloin cells of long tubular form. They contain the milky juice of aloe. This milky juice is often called the yellow blood of a plant, or a gum. It is believed that it is due to the sour, bitter taste and irritating soft tissues of the lips, and also because of the thorns bordering the edges of the leaves, that aloe growing in natural conditions is not attacked by animals and insects, and discourages them.
Milky juice, dried and powdered, as already indicated, is a sabur. Sabur, or sabr, in Arabic means "patience".The patience of the flower is indeed amazing. Traveling on the legendary frigate Pallada, Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov saw on the Cape of Good Hope an aloe flower that grew without any soil."Put him in an empty glass, in a jar, put it directly on the window or hang it on the wall and forget it - it will grow, it will not wither, it will not wither. .." he wrote enthusiastically.
So, Sabur is a black-brown pieces of various sizes or a powder of unpleasant smell and very bitter taste;easily soluble in 60% alcohol, very little in ether. Contains up to 60% of anthraglycosides( mixtures of which are called aloins) and free anthraquinones, about 20% of resinous substances.
In many cultures, lacteal aloe juice has been used and is used as an effective laxative. The first written sources with indications of the fact of the laxative action of the sap have come down to us from the ancient Arabs, who knew about this property of it in the 6th century BC.
For the cleavage of anthroglycosides to aloemodin, the presence of bile in the intestine is necessary( therefore, one should not prescribe a sabur for liver and gallbladder diseases).The laxative effect of milky aloe juice is related to the effect of the formed emodins on the neuromuscular apparatus predominantly of the large intestine. With the same content of emodin, it is more toxic than other drugs. As a laxative, it is rarely used now, as it causes irritation of the intestine. Large doses increase menstruation, stimulate its appearance.
Indications. Assign the drug, mainly with chronic( habitual) constipation: taken at a dose of 0.03-0.1 g( at night is best in pills because of unpleasant taste) causes a mushy stool with little or no pain( usually combined with belladonna andoften with rhubarb preparations).In large doses of [0.2-0.3( 0.5) g], the drug has a strong laxative( dystonic) effect, accompanied by sharp pains, a surge of blood to the intestine and pelvic organs.
Contraindications. Contraindications to the use of the drug are: pregnancy( the threat of abortion), inflammation and bleeding from the intestine, nephritis, rush of blood to the pelvic organs( cystitis, hemorrhoids, menorrhagia, menstruation).
Here are the main characteristics of preparations containing Sabur.
Extract of Sabur dry( Extractum Aloes siccum)
Dry aqueous extract, devoid of tarry substances. Yellowish-brown powder of very bitter taste, soluble in hot water( 1:10).It is twice as active as the previous drug. Apply with the usual constipation of 0,03-0,05-0,15 g in pills at night or in the morning;in doses of 0.2-0.3 g as a strong( deric) laxative.
Sander tincture( Tinctura Aloes)
Ingredients: dry sabour extract - 160 g, alcohol 40% - up to 1000 ml. The liquid is dark brown, very bitter taste. Apply as a light laxative for 10-20 drops per reception( in 1 ml contains 0.16 g of extract of Sabura dry).
Thick aloe extract of Striped( Extractum Aloes spissum).
Black-brown dense mass of bitter taste, well soluble in alcohol. Assign as a laxative in pills and tablets of 0.05-0.1 g 2-3 times a day.
Aloe juice( Succus Aloes)
Ingredients: juice from freshly picked leaves( or "children") of a common indoor aloe tree plant - 80 ml, ethyl alcohol 95% -20 ml, chlorobutanol-hydrate - 0.5%.Slightly turbid liquid of light orange color, bitter taste. Under the influence of light and air it gets dark. Assign inside with gastritis, gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, constipation of 1 tea or dessert spoon 2-3 times a day for 20-30 minutes before meals.
The course of treatment is 15-30 days. It is applied externally in the form of lotions or irrigation in the treatment of purulent wounds, burns, inflammatory skin diseases. Product: bottles of 100 ml.
Aliment Liniment( Linimentum Aloes)
Composition: juice from aloe vera leaves, aged 12 days in the dark at a temperature of 6-8 ° C, 7 parts, castor oil - 11 parts, eucalyptus oil 0.1 parts, emulsifier -11 parts. A thick mass of slightly creamy color, a peculiar smell. Applied with radiation therapy. The drug is applied 2-3 times a day and covered with a gauze napkin.
Aloe syrup with iron( Simpus Aloes cum Ferro) is an excellent stimulator of hematopoiesis. It is used for hypochromic anemia, chronic and acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with posthemorrhagic anemias, after infections, exhausting diseases and intoxications, with the development of malignant tumors of different localization.
Composition: freshly prepared ferric chloride solution - 10 ml, diluted hydrochloric acid - 1.5 ml, citric acid or tartaric acid - 0,4 g, syrup from aloe juice of the arboreal - 100 ml.
Take one teaspoon in 1/4 cups of water 3 times a day. The course of treatment is 15-30 days.
Aloe vera extract for oral administration, as well as aloe liquid extract for injection, is prescribed for the treatment of eye diseases( blepharitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, etc.), as well as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer of stomach and duodenum, bronchial asthma andgynecological diseases.
Aloe vera, canned with a 20% alcohol solution, is used for diphtheria, typhoid fever, dysentery, gastritis and chronic constipation.
Take a dose: 1-2 teaspoons 2-3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals.
Doctors refer biogenic stimulants to non-specific drugs, since they affect the entire body.
If stimulated tissue is placed in a weakened organism, biogenic stimulants can dramatically increase its resistance to diseases, killing bacteria and promoting the growth of healthy tissue. In this case, the general state of the body is so improved that it is not difficult to bring it to full recovery.
Any living tissue is suitable for obtaining biogenic stimulants, but aloe was chosen because its leaves can remain viable for a long time under adverse conditions, without fading, which was noticed in ancient times. For stimulation, the leaves are maintained, as already indicated, in the dark at a temperature of 4 to 8 ° C for 12 days. The intramuscular injection of this leaf, due to the presence of active substances in it, not only increases the general tone of a person, but also helps people recovering with conjunctivitis, blepharitis, cataracts, clouding of the lens, keratitis, progressive myopia, optic atrophy.
Extractum Aloes fluidum-aloe liquid extract
This is an aqueous extract of crushed aloe leaves( Aloe arborescens), preserved by the method of Academician VP Filatov in the dark at a temperature of 2-4 ° C( 15-20 days) or 6-8 °With( 9-15 days).The extract is a clear liquid from a light yellow to a yellowish-red color, a bitter taste. Contains biogenic stimulants, enhancing the protective functions of the body. Available in two forms: in ampoules for intramuscular injection and in solution for intravenous use.
Extractum Aloes fluidum pro injectionibus is used for various eye diseases( conjunctivitis, blepharitis, keratitis, iritis, vitreosis, progressive myopia, myopic chorioretinitis, retinal pigmentary degeneration, etc.) and in general diseases( ulcerativedisease of the stomach and duodenum, bronchial asthma, chronic arthritis, lupus, etc.).In order to strengthen the body's defenses, it is advisable to prescribe injections of the extract from the leaves of aloe;they are shown to children weakened by the patient, with traumatic epilepsy( especially accompanied by peptic ulcer disease, ocular and ear diseases).
The drug is administered intramuscularly daily for 1 ml;the maximum daily dose of 3-4 ml. Children under 5 years - 0.2-0.3 ml, over 5 years - 0.5 ml. The course of treatment is 30-50 injections. When painful injections are pre-injected with 0.5 ml of a 2% solution of novocaine. Repeated courses of treatment are carried out after a 2-3-month break. With bronchial asthma, 1-1.5 ml is administered daily for 10-15 days, and then once every two days;treatment course 30-35 injections.
With epilepsy, a course of treatment of 30 injections;on a second course should be held after a month's break.
Contraindicated in severe cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, pregnancy after 7 months, acute gastrointestinal disorders, far-reaching forms of nephro-nephritis.
Extractum Aloes fluidum pro usu interno - aloe liquid extract for ingestion
This extract is used inside at the same indications as the extract for hypodermic injections. Assign adults to 1 teaspoon, children to
5 years - 5-10 drops, 5-15 years - a teaspoon 3 times a day. The course of treatment is 30-45 days;it can be repeated every 2-3 months.
The drug is used in seborrhea, acne, furunculosis, rheumatism, abscesses, improves the blood supply to the skin and has a toning effect on the tissue.
Aloe vera coated tablets. Contain shredded, sustained in the cold in the dark leaf and used in the complex treatment of eye diseases( keratitis, iritis, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, etc.).
Aloe emulsion is used to prevent and treat radiation epidermis, radiation ulcers and other skin damage. Emulsion weakens the inflammatory phenomena, itching, strengthens the regeneration of the epidermis.
The composition of the emulsion includes alcohol-preserved juice from biostimulated aloe leaves, castor oil, emulsifier and eucalyptus oil. The emulsion has bactericidal and reparative action, reduces skin reactivity, improves connective tissue trophism.
Aloe has won high public trust. A consumer who is well aware of the diversity of the application of a plant and the effectiveness of its action in many diseases, sees in it "a remedy for all diseases."
Some companies, advertising their products, publicly declare that their products contain aloe, while in fact the amount of injected( if at all introduced) in them a useful substance is extremely insignificant and it should not even be said about it.
In the commercial world there is a rapid spread of counterfeits, the labels of which indicate that they are "aloe-containing", but nevertheless the level of sales of raw aloe products from year to year remains approximately at the same level. So, the saying, which is common between specialists in the cultivation of aloe, says: "There is much more aloe on sale than it is grown on plantations."
It is because of the high recognition and great customer demand for aloe that some Western companies began to savor their cosmetic products through the micro-doses of this plant only in order to be able to mention its beneficial effect on the skin.
It should be noted that the ingredients on the label are listed in descending order of quantity, so it's best not to be lazy and check the place of aloe in the product that you are going to buy.
If in the claims of beverages and jellies the name of aloe is not only not the first, but not even the second and not the third, then, probably, its quantity is so negligible that it can be completely neglected without relying on its usefulness.
At the same time, you should not think that aloe-containing cosmetic products are effective only if it includes a high percentage of aloe extract. In contrast to aloe-beverages and aloe-jelly, when it comes to cosmetics, "more" aloe does not mean "better".
In addition, it is important to know the following. At home, it is usually not possible to extract the jelly from the leaves of the aloe so that it does not contain a contaminant in the form of the yellow milky juice of the plant. Studies have shown that aloe stimulates the renewal of human cells, while milky juice, or gum, on the contrary, destroys them. That's why you need to be very careful, applying fresh aloe for skin healing.
Medicinal properties: is an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, regenerating wound-healing effect. The juice of leaves as an external agent is used in the treatment of purulent wounds, burns, insect bites, sunburn, certain types of skin diseases, and is also used for muscular spasms, joint pains and arthritis.
Indication: aloe juice with external application has a therapeutic effect for burns, trophic ulcers, infected ulcers, abscesses. With internal application it is effective for the treatment of gastritis, enteritis, constipation. Aloe extract for injection is used as a nonspecific agent for gastric ulcer and 12-colon, inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system, etc.
Dosage form: juice of their fresh aloe leaves for external and internal use. Cut the bottom leaves, rinse them with boiled water, cut into small pieces, wrapped in cheesecloth and squeezed.
Usage: is an integral part of numerous moisturizing ointments and cosmetic preparations.
Applied as lotions( 1-2 tsp) and for irrigation of wounds, burns, inflammatory skin areas. Take inside 1 tsp.before meals 2 to 3 times a day. With a cold run three times instillation of juice into the nostrils of 5 to 8 drops at intervals of 3-5 hours. For malnourished children, a nutritional formula is prepared that contains 100 g of aloe juice, 500 g of walnuts, 300 g of honey and 3-4 lemons of juice. Take a teaspoon 3 times a day for 30 minutes before eating. Aloe extract( pharmacy form - ampoules) is administered under the skin 1 ml 1 time per day. Contraindicated in patients with neoplasms.
With a therapeutic purpose, juice is used, from which a sabur( evaporated, condensed and hardened aloe leaf juice) is obtained, which gives a yellow-green powder with a distinctive odor and a bitter taste.
The sabor consists of aloins, which are mixtures of antiglucosides, which, when cleaved, form the eludin( trioxymethylanthraquinone) and sugar - arabinose. In addition, the sabur contains tar, essential oil and some other substances.
The active beginnings of the sabur are able to cause an increase in the proliferation of large intestines, so aloe has long been used as a laxative. Laxative action occurs 8-10 hours after admission.
For the cleavage of aloe antiglucosides, the presence of bile in the intestine is necessary, so do not use Sabur medications for patients with diseases of the liver and gall bladder.
In medical practice prescribe drugs Sabur most often with chronic constipation inside in the form of powder( 0.05-0.2 g per reception), dry and thick extract( 0.02-0.1 g) in tablets, as well as sabour tincture(20 drops at the reception).With chronic gastritis, accompanied by constipation, peptic ulcer, after dysentery and to increase the body's resistance against infectious diseases, to improve appetite take 5-10 ml of juice from fresh aloe leaves, which should be used immediately after its receipt, for 0.5 hoursbefore meals 2-3 times a day. Outwardly the juice from fresh leaves is used to treat purulent wounds, burns, inflammatory skin diseases, etc., with neuralgias, radiculitis, sciatica, headaches.
Emulsion made from the juice of aloe leaves( aged in the dark at a temperature of 6-8 degrees for 12 days), castor oil, eucalyptus oil, is used to prevent and treat skin lesions arising from radiation sickness, anemia.
In folk medicine as an external remedy this juice is very often and quite successfully used for burns, non-healing( old) wounds, ulcers, with purulent inflammation of the eyes or beginning cataract( gray throat) in the form of lotions from the diluted juice( in the ratio 1:10)or from the infusion of leaves.
Mixture for the treatment of drugs from aloe or agave for internal use in pulmonary tuberculosis, as well as with persistent bronchitis, neuralgia, sciatica, sciatica, headaches: pigs or goose pigs - 100 grams, butter( unsalted) - 100 g, honey bee(pure) - 100 g, juice from leaves of aloe or agave - 15 g, cocoa( for taste) - 50 g.
Take twice a day for 1 tbsp.spoon on a glass of hot milk.