Rare orchard crops
Jun 21, 2018
Now many gardeners grow rare crops on garden plots in the middle belt, including in the Moscow region. Of course, the concept of "rare" cultures is relative, becausethanks to the propaganda and efforts of the gardeners themselves, the number of such plants increases from year to year, some of them are no longer a rarity and they are grown everywhere as needed.
The need for a variety of cultivated crops is due, first, to the possibility of replenishing nutrition in flavor, food and medicinal terms. As is known, all chemical compounds contained in fruits and berries are divided into two groups: food( energy) and biologically active( protective).The first include: sugars, organic acids, amino acids, proteins and mineral salts, which are necessary for a person in large quantities as a source of energy. The second group of compounds acts on the human body with very small amounts( fractions of a milligram) as preventive and therapeutic means of protection against various diseases. These are vitamins, microelements, antibiotics, glycosides, alkaloids, oxycoumarins, specific acids and other substances.
Therefore, the more diverse the curative cultures harvested in the garden, the more diseases can prevent the fruits grown in it.
We give a brief description of crops( alphabetically)
Apricot is a strong tree with a height of up to 5-8 m. Apricot plants are distinguished by their high drought resistance and sufficient winter hardiness( they tolerate frosts down to -28-30 ° C), however, when leaving the rest period( at winter thaws) can be damaged at a temperature of -15-20 ° C( there are frosts, sunburn, cortex overgrowth).
The stems of young apricot shoots are reddish-brown, shiny, glabrous. Leaves are ordinary, simple. Trees begin to bear fruit for 5-6 years. Flower buds are formed on the growths of the previous year, as well as on the shport. Flowering begins before the leaves bloom. Because of the early flowering for the apricot, spring frosts are dangerous. The flowers are numerous, sessile or on very short stalks.
Apricot plants cross-pollinated, self-sterile. Therefore, on the site you must have or several trees of different varieties, or several varieties on one tree. Apricot varieties are propagated by grafting on apricot seedlings, domestic plums, cherry plums, thorns, as well as clonal rootstocks of the Kuban 86, Druzhba, BVA-1.
Quince Japanese low( henomeles) is a shrub in height 60-100 cm. The branches are wide-spread with spines 1-2 cm long. The leaves are broadly ovate 3-5 cm long with very large stipules, dark green, shiny. Blooms in May with orange-red flowers for 2-6 pcs.in truncated hands. Fruits ripen in late September, they are diverse in shape( mostly apple-shaped) and color( from yellow-green to bright orange), acidic, very fragrant, the average mass of the fruit is 20-30 g( in varieties it reaches 100-120 g), contain a large amount of pectin substances. The bush begins to bear fruit from 3-4 years of age, the harvest can reach up to 5 kg of fruit. For cross-pollination, it is desirable to have a minimum of 2 plants of different origin. Quince Japanese can be propagated by seeds, root offsprings, layers, bush division and green cuttings. -
Actinidia colomicta is a curly bush( liana) 3 to 7 m long, its shoots twist the support counterclockwise. Leaves ovate-oblong, slightly pubescent along the veins, from above dark green, shining, on some leaves variegation is shown. Plants are dioecious, bloom in late May - early June, flowers are white or pink with aroma. Sometimes damaged by spring frosts. Oblong or oblong-round fruits weighing 1.5-4 g, mature at the same time in late August - early September, emerald green, sweet and sour taste with the aroma resembling pineapple. The yield from 1 bush can reach up to 4 kg. In 3.5 g of actinidia fruit contains a daily intake of vitamin C.
Actinidia can be propagated by seeds, layers, lignified and green cuttings. For 3-4 female plants, you must have 1 male( for example, varieties Commander).To form and trim actinidia is preferable to deep autumn. Young plants need to be protected from damage by cats. In the culture there are varieties Izobilnaya, Leningradskaya Late, Large-Fruited, VIR-1, Queen of the Garden, Gourmand, Charming, Slastena, Homestead and others.
Alycha( plum spread or Russian plum) is a valuable kind of plum, characterized by fastness( for 2-3 years), resistance to fungal diseases, annual and abundant fruit bearing. It is a tree or multi-stem shrub, light-loving and drought-resistant. Alycha fructifies on a one-year increment, bouquet twigs and shports, blossoms in the second half of May, requires cross-pollination by other varieties. Fruits ripen in August-September. In the suburbs in recent years, good varieties grow: Kuban Comet, Tent, Naidena, Ruby, Scythian Gold, July Rose, Timiryazevskaya, Cleopatra, Klondike and others. A variety of plum can be propagated by green cuttings, grafting.
Barbaris is a multi-barbed spiny deciduous shrub up to 2.5 m high with thin erect shoots. It is also winter-resistant and drought-resistant, light-loving and low-demanding to the soil. Well tolerates the cutting of branches.
Inflorescences are racemose, up to 6 cm long. Berries are bright red, sometimes yellowish red, sour, ripen in September-October, harvest from a bush - up to 2 kg. For medicinal purposes use berries, leaves, bark and roots. Barberry can be propagated by seeds, root offspring, bush division, green cuttings.